Below you will find various FBI files on prominent scientists and medical professionals from around the world.
Declassified Scientist and Medical Professional FBI Files
|Abramson, Harold Alexander – [20 Pages, 9.9 MB] – Harold Alexander Abramson (November 27, 1899 – September 1980) was an American physician (allergist and pediatrician) noted as an early advocate of therapeutic LSD. He played a significant role in CIA’s MKULTRA program to investigate the military applications of LSD.|
|Breslow, Lester – [ 396 Pages, 19.83 MB ] – Lester Breslow (March 17, 1915, in Bismarck, ND, USA – April 9, 2012, in Los Angeles) was an American physician who promoted public health. He received his undergraduate degree from the University of Minnesota, which is also where he received his MD and MPH. Dr. Breslow served in the United States Army during World War II, and when he returned took a position with the California State Department of Public Health. While in medical school he was studying to be a psychiatrist, and as a junior he worked for a summer in the Fergus Falls Minnesota State Hospital for the Insane. His experience there left him discouraged once he realized that in that time, there was not much they could do for those patients except keep them out of harm’s way. When he returned to medical school for his senior year he told a friend on his, also a faculty member, about his feelings and was introduced to a new professor of public health, Gaylord Anderson. Anderson was the one that got Breslow set on a career in epidemiology. Dr. Breslow was considered an exemplary doctor as well as a genuinely good person. In an obituary written by one of his former “protégées” it says, “I was one of Lester’s preventative medicine residents 15 years ago…Having had an opportunity to observe him engage with ‘paupers’ and ‘kings,’ I can attest to his treatment of all with respect and appreciation for their humanity, abilities, and contributions. I can also attest to his refusal to accept anything less than the best, from others (like me!) and particularly, from himself.”|
Brown, Thomas Townsend – [4 Pages, 0.8MB] – Thomas Townsend Brown (March 18, 1905 – October 27, 1985) was an American inventor whose research into odd electrical effects led him to believe he had discovered a connection between strong electric fields and gravity, a type of antigravity effect. For most of his life he attempted to develop devices based on his ideas, trying to promote them for use by industry and the military. He came up with the name “Biefeld–Brown effect” for the phenomenon he had discovered and called the field of study electrogravitics.
According to the FBI, the files relating to Brown are either lost or destroyed or both.
|Bush, Vannevar – [ 241 Pages, 78.1 MB ] – Vannevar Bush (March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator, whose most important contribution was as head of the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) during World War II, through which almost all wartime military R&D was carried out, including initiation and early administration of the Manhattan Project. He is also known in engineering for his work on analog computers, for founding Raytheon, and for the memex, an adjustable microfilm viewer with a structure analogous to that of the World Wide Web. Bush was also an alleged member of the Majestic-12 (MJ-12) group. Please note: As admitted by the FBI, an entire file on Bush was destroyed. According to the FBI: “One record (161-BS-1452) which may be responsive to your FOIA request was destroyed in April of 1998.”|
|Cameron, Donald Ewen – [21 Pages, 8.3MB ] – Donald Ewen Cameron (24 December 1901 – 8 September 1967) — known as D. Ewen Cameron or Ewen Cameron — was a Scottish-born psychiatrist who served as President of the American Psychiatric Association (1952–1953), Canadian Psychiatric Association (1958-1959), American Psychopathological Association (1963), Society of Biological Psychiatry (1965) and World Psychiatric Association (1961-1966). In spite of his high professional reputation, he has been criticized for administering electroshock therapy and experimental drugs to patients without their informed consent. Some of this work took place in the context of the Project MKUltra mind control program.|
|Condon, Edward Uhler [ File #1 (312MB) | File #2 (0.1MB) | File #3 (0.1MB) | File #4 (177MB) ]- [ 1,777 Pages ] – Edward Uhler Condon (March 2, 1902 – March 26, 1974) was a distinguished American nuclear physicist, a pioneer in quantum mechanics, and a participant in the development of radar and nuclear weapons during World War II as part of the Manhattan Project. The Franck–Condon principle and the Slater–Condon rules are named after him. Condon became widely known in 1968 as principal author of the Condon Report, an official review funded by the United States Air Force that concluded that unidentified flying objects (UFOs) have prosaic explanations. The lunar crater Condon is named for him. Please note: The FBI stated there MAY be additional records pertaining to Condon. I requested the remaining material, and if any exists, will post it when available. Press the “subscribe” button for this page to be notified when it’s updated.|
|Cortright, Edgar – [15 Pages, 0.6MB] – Edgar Maurice Cortright (July 29, 1923 – May 4, 2014) was a scientist and engineer, and senior official at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the United States. His most prominent positions during his career were Director of NASA’s Langley Research Center, and Chairman of the Apollo 13 Review Board which investigated the explosion that occurred during the Apollo 13 spaceflight in 1970.|
|Einstein, Albert – [ File #1 | File #2 | File #3 | File #4 | File #5 | File #6 | File #7 | File #8 | File #9| File #10 | File #11 | File #12 | File #13 | File #14 ] – An investigation was conducted by the FBI regarding the famous physicist because of his affiliation with the Communist Party. Einstein was a member, sponsor, or affiliated with thirty-four communist fronts between 1937-1954. He also served as honorary chairman for three communist organizations.|
| Erdos, Paul FBI Release #1 – [233 Pages, 13.2 MB]
Erdos, Paul FBI Release #2 – [39 Pages, 15.3 MB]
Erdos, Paul DOD Release #1 – [7 Pages, 1.5 MB] Paul Erdős (26 March 1913 – 20 September 1996) was a Hungarian mathematician. He was one of the most prolific mathematicians of the 20th century, but also known for his social practice of mathematics (more than 500 collaborators) and eccentric lifestyle (Time magazine called him The Oddball’s Oddball). Erdős pursued problems in combinatorics, graph theory, number theory, classical analysis, approximation theory, set theory, and probability theory. According to the FBI in release #2 – files were destroyed on Paul Erdos. The State Department withheld 12 pages related to Erdos, claiming all were regarding VISA papers, and exempt from disclosure.
| Estabrooks, George Hoben – FBI Release #1 – [498 Pages, 278.7MB]
Estabrooks, George Hoben – FBI Release #2 – [40 Pages, 19.1MB]George Hoben Estabrooks (December 16, 1895 – December 30, 1973) was a Canadian-American psychologist who would die in the County of Madison, New York which was the home county for Colgate University. George Estabrooks was a Harvard University graduate, a Rhodes Scholar, chairman of the Department of Psychology at Colgate University and an authority on hypnosis during World War II. He is known for hypnoprogramming U.S. government agents during World War II.
|Ewing, Dr. Maurice – [15 Pages, 5.4MB] – William Maurice “Doc” Ewing (May 12, 1906 – May 4, 1974) was an American geophysicist and oceanographer. Ewing has been described as a pioneering geophysicist who worked on the research of seismic reflection and refraction in ocean basins, ocean bottom photography, submarine sound transmission (including the SOFAR channel), deep sea coring of the ocean bottom, theory and observation of earthquake surface waves, fluidity of the Earth’s core, generation and propagation of microseisms, submarine explosion seismology, marine gravity surveys, bathymetry and sedimentation, natural radioactivity of ocean waters and sediments, study of abyssal plains and submarine canyons. (Note: By letter dated 16 March 2018 from the FBI, it was revealed that any additional documentation on Dr. Ewing was destroyed on 12/23/2004.)|
Fermi, Enrico – [4 Pages, 1.7MB] – Enrico Fermi (29 September 1901 – 28 November 1954) was an Italian physicist, who created the world’s first nuclear reactor, the Chicago Pile-1. He has been called the “architect of the nuclear age” and the “architect of the atomic bomb”. He was one of the few physicists to excel both theoretically and experimentally. Fermi held several patents related to the use of nuclear power, and was awarded the 1938 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on induced radioactivity by neutron bombardment and the discovery of transuranic elements. He made significant contributions to the development of quantum theory, nuclear and particle physics, and statistical mechanics.
Fermi does have an FBI File, in which I received confirmation that the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) declassified the majority of it – but I am unable to pay the fees for copies. If you are interested in sponsoring the file, CONTACT ME.
| Fishbein, Dr. Morris – FBI Release #1 – [104 Pages, 6.9MB]
Fishbein, Dr. Morris – FBI Release #2 – [5 Pages, 3.6MB]
Morris Fishbein M.D. (July 22, 1889 – September 27, 1976) was a physician who became the editor of the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) from 1924 to 1950. In 1961 he became the founding Editor of Medical World News, a magazine for doctors. In 1970 he endowed the Morris Fishbein Center. He was also notable for exposing quacks, notably the goat-gland surgeon John R. Brinkley, and campaigning for regulation of medical devices.
|Grove, Andrew S. – [142 Pages, 54MB] – Andrew Stephen “Andy” Grove (born András István Gróf, Hungarian: Gróf András István; 2 September 1936 – 21 March 2016) was a Hungarian-born American businessman, engineer, author and a science pioneer in the semiconductor industry. He escaped from Communist-controlled Hungary at the age of 20 and moved to the United States where he finished his education. He was one of the founders and the CEO of Intel Corporation, helping transform the company into the world’s largest manufacturer of semiconductors.|
|Heimlich, Henry – [10 Pages, 2.5MB] – Henry Judah Heimlich (February 3, 1920 – December 17, 2016) was an American thoracic surgeon and medical researcher. He is widely credited as the inventor of the Heimlich maneuver, a technique of abdominal thrusts for stopping choking, described in Emergency Medicine in 1974. He also invented the Micro Trach portable oxygen system for ambulatory patients and the Heimlich Chest Drain Valve, or “flutter valve,” which drains blood and air out of the chest cavity.|
|Hiskey, Clarence Francis – [1,221 Pages, 731MB] Note: LARGE File Download – Clarence Francis Hiskey (1912–1998), born Clarence Szczechowski, became active in the Communist Party USA (CPUSA) when he attended graduate school at the University of Wisconsin. He became a professor of chemistry at the University of Tennessee, Columbia University and Brooklyn Polytechnic Institute. For a time, Hiskey worked at the Tennessee Valley Authority and the University of Chicago Metallurgical Laboratory, part of the Manhattan Project. Hiskey’s wife may have been involved in espionage also.|
|Khalifa, Rashad – [23 Pages, 11.9MB] – Rashad Khalifa (November 19, 1935 – January 31, 1990) was an Egyptian-American biochemist, closely associated with the United Submitters International. He was assassinated on January 31, 1990. Khalifa said that he was a messenger of God and that the archangel Gabriel “most assertively” told him that chapter 36, verse 3, of the Quran, “specifically” referred to him. His followers refer to him as God’s Messenger of the Covenant. He promoted a strict monotheism and was a prominent Quranist, rejecting the hadith and sunnah as fabrications attributed to Muhammad by later scholars.|
|Kohn, Walter – [175 Pages, 75.6MB] – Walter Kohn (March 9, 1923 – April 19, 2016) was an Austrian-born American theoretical physicist and theoretical chemist. He was awarded, with John Pople, the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 1998. The award recognized their contributions to the understandings of the electronic properties of materials. In particular, Kohn played the leading role in the development of density functional theory, which made it possible to calculate quantum mechanical electronic structure by equations involving the electronic density (rather than the many-body wavefunction). This computational simplification led to more accurate calculations on complex systems as well as many new insights, and it has become an essential tool for materials science, condensed-phase physics, and the chemical physics of atoms and molecules.|
| Leary, Timothy – FBI Release #1 – [78 Pages, 44.0MB]
Leary, Timothy – NARA Releases – [84 Pages, 7.2MB]Timothy Francis Leary (October 22, 1920 – May 31, 1996) was an American psychologist and writer known for advocating the exploration of the therapeutic potential of psychedelic drugs under controlled conditions. Leary conducted experiments under the Harvard Psilocybin Project during American legality of LSD and psilocybin, resulting in the Concord Prison Experiment and the Marsh Chapel Experiment. Leary’s colleague, Richard Alpert (Ram Dass), was fired from Harvard University on May 27, 1963 for giving psilocybin to an undergraduate student. Leary was planning to leave Harvard when his teaching contract expired in June, the following month. He was fired, for “failure to keep classroom appointments”, with his pay docked on April 30.
|Lilly, John Cunningham – [26 Pages, 8.0 MB ] – John Cunningham Lilly (January 6, 1915 – September 30, 2001) was an American physician, neuroscientist, psychoanalyst, psychonaut, philosopher, writer and inventor. He was a researcher of the nature of consciousness using mainly isolation tanks, dolphin communication, and psychedelic drugs, sometimes in combination.|
|Mead, Margaret – [238 Pages, 115.9MB] – Margaret Mead (December 16, 1901 – November 15, 1978) was an American cultural anthropologist who featured frequently as an author and speaker in the mass media during the 1960s and 1970s. She earned her bachelor’s degree at Barnard College in New York City and her M.A. and Ph.D. degrees from Columbia University. Mead was a respected and often controversial academic who popularized the insights of anthropology in modern American and Western culture. Her reports detailing the attitudes towards sex in South Pacific and Southeast Asian traditional cultures influenced the 1960s sexual revolution. She was a proponent of broadening sexual mores within a context of traditional Western religious life.|
|Millikan, Robert – [6 Pages, 0.8 MB] – Robert Andrews Millikan (March 22, 1868 – December 19, 1953) was an American experimental physicist honored with the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1923 for the measurement of the elementary electronic charge and for his work on the photoelectric effect. Millikan graduated from Oberlin College in 1891 and obtained his doctorate at Columbia University in 1895. In 1896 he became an assistant at the University of Chicago, where he became a full professor in 1910. In 1909 Millikan began a series of experiments to determine the electric charge carried by a single electron. He began by measuring the course of charged water droplets in an electric field. The results suggested that the charge on the droplets is a multiple of the elementary electric charge, but the experiment was not accurate enough to be convincing. He obtained more precise results in 1910 with his famous oil-drop experiment in which he replaced water (which tended to evaporate too quickly) with oil. In 1914 Millikan took up with similar skill the experimental verification of the equation introduced by Albert Einstein in 1905 to describe the photoelectric effect. He used this same research to obtain an accurate value of Planck’s constant. In 1921 Millikan left the University of Chicago to become director of the Norman Bridge Laboratory of Physics at the California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in Pasadena, California. There he undertook a major study of the radiation that the physicist Victor Hess had detected coming from outer space. Millikan proved that this radiation is indeed of extraterrestrial origin, and he named it “cosmic rays.” As chairman of the Executive Council of Caltech (the school’s governing body at the time) from 1921 until his retirement in 1945, Millikan helped to turn the school into one of the leading research institutions in the United States. He also served on the board of trustees for Science Service, now known as Society for Science & the Public, from 1921 to 1953.|
|Moon, Robert James – Cross References – [40 Pages, 27.9MB] – Robert James Moon (February 14, 1911 – November 1, 1989) was an American physicist, chemist and engineer. An important figure in 20th century nuclear science, he was involved in America’s wartime Manhattan Project. He pioneered work on the fundamental structure of the atomic nucleus based on platonic solids.|
|Murray, Bruce [151 Pages, 6.65MB] – Bruce Churchill Murray (November 30, 1931 – August 29, 2013) was an American planetary scientist. He was a director of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and co-founder of The Planetary Society.|
|Murray, Henry [14 Pages, 5.9MB] – Henry Alexander Murray (May 13, 1893 – June 23, 1988) was an American psychologist at Harvard University. He was Director of the Harvard Psychological Clinic in the School of Arts and Sciences after 1930. Murray developed a theory of personality called personology, based on “need” and “press”. Murray was also a co-developer, with Christiana Morgan, of the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), which he referred to as “the second best-seller that Harvard ever published, second only to the Harvard Handbook of Music.”|
|Ochsner Sr., Dr. Alton – [ 31 Pages, 20.81MB ] File #2 – [ 55 Pages, 4.31 MB ] File #3 – [ 4 Pages, 0.2 MB ] – Alton Ochsner, Sr. (May 4, 1896 – September 24, 1981), was a surgeon and medical researcher who worked at Tulane University and other New Orleans hospitals before he established his own world-renowned The Ochsner Clinic, now known as Ochsner Foundation Hospital. Among its many services are heart transplants.|
|Olson, Dr. Frank – [10 Pages, 2.9MB] – Frank Rudolph Olson (July 17, 1910 – November 28, 1953) was an American bacteriologist, biological warfare scientist, and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) employee who worked at Camp Detrick (now Fort Detrick) in Maryland. In rural Maryland, he was covertly dosed with LSD by his CIA supervisor and, nine days later, plunged to his death from the window of a New York City hotel room. Some — including the U.S. government — term his death a suicide, while others allege murder.|
|Oppenheimer, J. Robert – [ 1,251 Pages, 75.31MB ] – Julius Robert Oppenheimer (April 22, 1904 – February 18, 1967) was an American theoretical physicist and professor of physics at the University of California, Berkeley. He is among the persons who are often called the “father of the atomic bomb” for his role in the Manhattan Project, the World War II project that developed the first nuclear weapons. The first atomic bomb was detonated on July 16, 1945, in the Trinity test in New Mexico; Oppenheimer remarked later that it brought to mind words from the Bhagavad Gita: “Now I am become Death, the destroyer of worlds.”|
|Parsons, John aka Parsons, Marvel Whiteside – [174 Pages, 87.7MB] – John Whiteside Parsons (born Marvel Whiteside Parsons; October 2, 1914 – June 17, 1952), better known as Jack Parsons, was an American rocket engineer and rocket propulsion researcher, chemist, and Thelemite occultist. Associated with the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), Parsons was one of the principal founders of both the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and the Aerojet Engineering Corporation. He invented the first rocket engine using a castable, composite rocket propellant, and pioneered the advancement of both liquid-fuel and solid-fuel rockets.|
|Reich, Wilhelm – [5 Pages, 0.8MB] – Wilhelm Reich (24 March 1897 – 3 November 1957) was an Austrian psychoanalyst. Author of several influential books – most notably Character Analysis (1933), The Mass Psychology of Fascism (1933) and The Sexual Revolution (1936) – Reich became known as one of the most radical practitioners of psychiatry. His file is very small, and consists of an autopsy analysis request after his death, after it was feared he was poisoned.|
|Rubin, Vera – [103 Pages, 51MB] – Vera Florence Cooper Rubin (July 23, 1928 – December 25, 2016) was an American astronomer who pioneered work on galaxy rotation rates. She uncovered the discrepancy between the predicted angular motion of galaxies and the observed motion, by studying galactic rotation curves. This phenomenon became known as the galaxy rotation problem, and was evidence of the existence of dark matter. Although initially met with skepticism, Rubin’s results were confirmed over subsequent decades. Her legacy was described by The New York Times as “ushering in a Copernican-scale change” in cosmological theory.|
|Sagan, Carl – [39 Pages, 5MB] – Dr. Carl Sagan on November 15, 1983, received a letter addressed to him at the Space Science Building, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY. The letter spun stories of possible terrorist happenings. The communiqué was signed “M. Springfield.” A pretext call was made to M. Springfield who was located in the telephone directory. The call revealed that M. Springfield died in 1972, and his widow now resides at the address. She had no knowledge of the letter sent to Dr. Sagan.|
|Schwarz, Fred – [757 Pages, 53.4MB ] – Doctor Frederick Charles Schwarz (15 January 1913 – 24 January 2009) was an Australian physician and political activist who founded the Christian Anti-Communism Crusade (CACC). He made a number of speaking tours in the USA in the 1950s, and in 1960 moved his base of operations to California. He was the author of the international bestseller, You Can Trust The Communists (to be Communists) (Prentice Hall, 1960). Dr Schwarz worked with his wife, Lillian Schwarz, from abroad and, in his later years, at their home in Camden, near Sydney, in the Australian state of New South Wales.|
|Seaborg, Glenn – [432 Pages, 258MB ] – Glenn Theodore Seaborg (April 19, 1912 – February 25, 1999) was an American chemist whose involvement in the synthesis, discovery and investigation of ten transuranium elements earned him a share of the 1951 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. His work in this area also led to his development of the actinide concept and the arrangement of the actinide series in the periodic table of the elements.|
|Shockley, William Bradford – [96 Pages, 51.4MB ] – William Bradford Shockley Jr. (February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989) was an American physicist and inventor. Shockley was the manager of a research group that included John Bardeen and Walter Brattain. The three scientists invented the point-contact transistor in 1947 and were jointly awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics. Shockley’s attempts to commercialize a new transistor design in the 1950s and 1960s led to California’s “Silicon Valley” becoming a hotbed of electronics innovation. In his later life, Shockley was a professor of electrical engineering at Stanford University and became a proponent of eugenics.|
| Smith, Phillip Meek (Release #1) – [ 29 Pages, 27.9MB ]
Smith, Phillip Meek (Release #2) – [ 9 Pages, 0.9MB ] – Dr. Smith was Director of the National Research Council of the National Academies of Sciences and Engineering from 1981 to mid-1994. Previously, he was an Associate Director of the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy for Natural Resources, Energy and Science from 1975 to 1981 and branch chief for science at the Office of Management and Budget from 1972 to 1973. Earlier he directed large-scale international research programs in the geophysical sciences at the National Science Foundation. In the 1950s, Smith conducted research in Antarctica and explored then uncharted regions of the continent.
| Teller, Edward (FBI Release #1) – [63 Pages, 11.57MB]
Teller, Edward (FBI Release #2) – [84 Pages, 42.3MB] – This release was received in November of 2016. It comprised of the remaining material from the following agencies: USCIS, CIA, AFOSI, DOS and DOE.
Teller, Edward (CIA Release) – [8 Pages, 0.7MB] – This was some material forwarded to the CIA from the FBI for declassification. It was released in September of 2015.
Teller, Edward (AFOSI Release) – [4 Pages, 0.6MB] Edward Teller (January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-born American theoretical physicist who, although he claimed he did not care for the title, is known as “the father of the hydrogen bomb”. When I first requested Teller’s file, I was told it would be more than 3,500 pages, and incur fees of more than $100. After a few months, I received part of his file, and then more pages were forwarded to multiple agencies. I am a bit confused how this FOIA request turned out, but as I receive the pages, I will add them accordingly.
| Tesla, Nikola – FBI Release #1 – [290 Pages, 53.52MB]
Tesla, Nikola – FBI Release #2 – [354 Pages, 24.5MB] – September 2016 Release – I had previously received a stack of Tesla files, as archived below. This release, with the impression it was a “new” release, is largely duplicate with what I had received previously (link below). However, there are approximately 65+ pages of ‘new’ material at least. I did not go line by line and page by page – however, I will continue to archive both releases here for research.
Tesla, Nikola – FBI Release #3 – [68 Pages, 39.8MB] – April 2018 ReleaseNikola Tesla (10 July 1856 – 7 January 1943) was a Serbian American inventor, electrical engineer, mechanical engineer, physicist, and futurist best known for his contributions to the design of the modern alternating current (AC) electricity supply system. Tesla gained experience in telephony and electrical engineering before emigrating to the United States in 1884 to work for Thomas Edison. He soon struck out on his own with financial backers, setting up laboratories and companies to develop a range of electrical devices. His patented AC induction motor and transformer were licensed by George Westinghouse, who also hired Tesla as a consultant to help develop a power system using alternating current. Tesla is also known for his high-voltage, high-frequency power experiments in New York and Colorado Springs which included patented devices and theoretical work used in the invention of radio communication, for his X-ray experiments, and for his ill-fated attempt at intercontinental wireless transmission in his unfinished Wardenclyffe Tower project.
|Trump, John G. – [16 Pages, 2.2MB] – John George Trump (August 21, 1907 – February 21, 1985) was an American electrical engineer, inventor, and physicist. He was a recipient of U.S. President Ronald Reagan’s National Medal of Science, and a member of the National Academy of Engineering. Trump was noted for developing rotational radiation therapy. Together with Robert J. Van de Graaff, he developed one of the first million-volt X-ray generators. He was also the uncle of President-elect of the United States, Donald Trump. These documents consist of the entire FOIA case file, and processing notes, to the request I did wherein it was told to me files relating to John G. Trump were destroyed.|
|von Braun, Wernher – [331 Pages, 36.1MB] – Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun (March 23, 1912 – June 16, 1977) was a German, later American, aerospace engineer and space architect credited with inventing the V-2 rocket for Nazi Germany and the Saturn V for the United States. He was one of the leading figures in the development of rocket technology in Nazi Germany, where he was a member of the Nazi Party and the SS. Following World War II, he was moved to the United States, along with about 1,500 other scientists, engineers, and technicians, as part of Operation Paperclip, where he developed the rockets that launched the United States’ first space satellite Explorer 1, and the Apollo program manned lunar landings. In his twenties and early thirties, von Braun worked in Germany’s rocket development program, where he helped design and develop the V-2 rocket at Peenemünde during World War II. Following the war, von Braun worked for the United States Army on an intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM) program before his group was assimilated into NASA. Under NASA, he served as director of the newly formed Marshall Space Flight Center and as the chief architect of the Saturn V launch vehicle, the superbooster that propelled the Apollo spacecraft to the Moon. In 1975, he received the National Medal of Science. He continued insisting on the human mission to Mars throughout his life.|
|Wheeler, John Archibald – [331 Pages, 96.3MB] – John Archibald Wheeler (July 9, 1911 – April 13, 2008) was an American theoretical physicist. He was largely responsible for reviving interest in general relativity in the United States after World War II. Wheeler also worked with Niels Bohr in explaining the basic principles behind nuclear fission. Together with Gregory Breit, Wheeler developed the concept of Breit–Wheeler process. He is best known for linking the term “black hole” to objects with gravitational collapse already predicted early in the 20th century, for coining the terms “quantum foam”, “neutron moderator”, “wormhole” and “it from bit”, and for hypothesizing the “one-electron universe”.|