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Laboratory Hardened Bioweapons
August 21, 2020
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Laboratory Hardened Bioweapons

Bio-Tech - Biological Technology Patented Technology

2020: Bio-Tech Lyme and Morgellons

Because Lyme and Morgellons - come out of the same cooking pot they share many of the same
Pathogens and Parasites. It’s been said that while not every Lymie has Morgellons every Morgie has Lyme. More will be added in the future.

Everyone On This Planet Now Has Morgellons

Carnicom Institute Research - clearly indicates the likelihood that almost Everyone on this Planet now has Morgellons in dormant form waiting to be activated. Many Lyme sufferers also go on to develop active Morgellons.

Believe it or not more than half of the cells in Your Body are NOW bacterial after over 40 years of chemtrail spraying. Most are Not harmless or beneficial. The remainder are Pathogenic and they together with heavy metals pollutants and toxins represent a Major Burden on the immune system preventing it from dealing effectively with Morgellons and Lyme.

Biotech Patented Technology

The Protocol is divided into phases - Terrain, Organisms and Biotech. This last phase is new and includes an extensive “mini protocol” designed to destroy the Patented Technology that allows many insects to invade the body and reverse its damage.

The Brine Therapy section augments programs for the slime moulds found in Morgellons. It also works to kill organisms common to both diseases.

Tap Water - is another Major Source of toxic chemicals carcinogens and even dangerous organisms.

Virulent Multi Pathogen Illnesses

Disease - never sleeps and Pathogens don’t take time off. Their prime directive is: reproduce. Their growth is exponential particularly in Morgellons and Lyme. These Virulent Multi Pathogen Illnesses destroy lives and unless treated effectively can become life threatening.

Designer Diseases Morgellons and Lyme - are tough designer diseases to beat.

Parasites - any living thing that lives in or on you that consumes your energy or resources and that confers no benefit upon you in exchange is a Parasite. This includes insects, fungi, bacteria and viruses. With the possible exception of viruses all Parasites themselves have their own Parasites.

Viruses and Spirochaetes - can parasitize bacteria. Fungi can parasitize larger fungi. They can also host viruses, bacteria and insects. Insects can harbour many different Parasites internally and on the surface of their bodies.

85% of Adult North Americans Are Infected With Parasites

Dr. Hazel Parcells - a Parasite expert believes that “85% of adult North Americans are infected with Parasites.

If you have suffered from Morgellons you may often experience a sensation of crawling, biting, stinging and sometimes believe yourselves have an insect or Parasite infestation.

Morgellons Disease MD - is a complex dermopathy characterized by the spontaneous appearance of slowly-healing skin lesions that contain multicolored filaments either lying under, embedded in or projecting from skin.

Morgellons Disease is a rare and strange disease. According to the patient’s description symptoms include a macula, feeling tired and thousands of Parasites appear to be crawling under the skin. In severe cases strange red, blue or black fibers will grow in the skin of the patient.

Patients may also exhibit constitutional, musculoskeletal and neurocognitive symptoms that are associated with Lyme Disease.

Lyme Disease LD and tickborne coinfections. The presence of these symptoms suggests an infectious etiology of the dermopathy and possible vectoring by ticks.

The Most Common Signs and Symptoms:

Skin rashes or sores that can cause intense itching
Crawling sensations on and under the skin often compared to insects moving stinging or biting
Fibers, threads or black stringy material in and on the skin
Difficulty concentrating
Short-term memory loss
Depressed mood

GM Cause of Morgellons

I quote from the website [see 7oes6p]: "Morgellons Disease is no longer rare nor is it mysterious any longer. A study of the fibers shows that they contain DNA from both a fungus and a bacterium which are used in the commercial preparation of genetically modified Genetically Mutated Foods and non-food crops such as cotton. The fibers themselves are primarily cellulose which the human body cannot break down or manufacture. So GM technology apparently has like Professor Frankenstein found a way to animate the nonliving." Source: Rima Laibow MD Natural Solutions Foundation. I would like to add that all GM crops use Agrobacterium to transfer target DNA to the host. The scientists then use an antibiotic to kill the Agrobacterium. Problem is studies show the antibiotic does not kill the Agrobacterium and the Agrobacterium is still alive in the GM crop. Agrobacterium easily infects Humans animals and plants. It also causes crown gall on eucalyptus trees. Peter O. NSW Australia See Peter's letter in NEXUS vol. 15 no. 4.

Genetically Mutated Foods - today saturate our diet particularly in the USA. Over 80 per cent of all processed foods sold in supermarkets contain them. Other GM foods include grains like rice, corn and wheat; legumes like soybeans (and a range of soy products) vegetable oils; soft drinks; salad dressings; vegetables and fruits; dairy products including eggs; meat and other animal products and even infant formula. There's also a vast array of hidden additives and ingredients in processed foods such as in tomato sauce, ice cream and peanut butter. They're unrevealed to consumers because such labelling is prohibited yet the more of these foods that we eat the greater the potential threat to our health. Today we're all lab rats in an Uncontrolled Unregulated Mass Human Experiment the results of which are as yet unknown. The risks from it are beyond measure and it will take many years to discover them.

Lyme Disease LD - is a complicated infection that is caused by bacteria that’s transmitted from a tick or insect bite. The most cases of Lyme are due to a bite from a type of deer tick known as the black legged tick that can carry and pass on bacteria known as borrelia burgdorferi.

According to the Michigan Lyme Disease Association more recently it’s also been found that other insects can spread Lyme disease or cause similar infections including mosquitoes possibly spiders or fleas and other types of ticks.

The Most Common Symptoms:

1. A temporary “butterfly” skin rash that appears where the tick bite occurred.
2. Flu-like symptoms, especially shortly after being infected. (fever, trouble sleeping, neck pain, and chills)
3. Poor sleep, chronic fatigue and lethargy
4. Digestive issues (nausea and loss of appetite)
5. Achiness and joint pains.
6. Mood changes (increased depression and fatigue)
7. Cognitive changes (forgetfulness, headaches, brain fog, and etc.)


Half of The World's Human Population is infected with Toxoplasma Parasites in the body and the brain.

A Parasite is a live creature that invades and lives off its host most often causing harm.

They multiply inside you as they eat your food steal your nutrients and in some cases live off your flesh whilst shedding and excreting.

Parasites vary in form from tiny microscopic organisms to worms growing several feet in length to lice and ticks. They can be transmitted by air, food, water, insects, animals and People.

About Parasites ?
Different Parasites are transmitted to Humans by many different methods. Some are in the air that we breath carried on the wind along with other dust particles.

Others are carried by pets. Dogs, cats, birds and even fish have Parasites that can and do infect Humans.

Another source of Parasites is the foods that we eat including beef, pork, poultry, fish and even fresh vegetables and fruits.

Contaminated water even the chlorinated water that comes from the faucet can harbour certain Parasites and outbreaks of illness do occur.

Other Parasites are spread by mosquitos, flies, fleas and other insects.

The immune system is normally able to kill and eliminate many of the Parasites that attack us. It is usually only when the immune system becomes over burdened that Parasites become a problem.

Once the immune system is not able to keep up with the invading Parasites other health issues can contribute to failing health.

Parasites are categorised according to structure, shape, function and reproductive ability.

These include microscopic organisms (protozoa); roundworms, pinworms and hookworms (nematoda); tapeworms (cestoda); and flukes (trematoda).

Can Parasites Change Your Personality ?

Toxoplasmosis - Feeling sociable or reckless? You might have Toxoplasmosis an infection caused by the microscopic Parasite Toxoplasma gondii which the CDC estimates has infected about 22.5 percent of Americans older than 12 years old. Researchers tested participants for T. gondii infection and had them complete a personality questionnaire. They found that both men and women infected with T. gondii were more extroverted and less conscientious than the infection free participants. These changes are thought to result from the Parasite's influence on brain chemicals the scientists write in the May/June issue of the European Journal of Personality.

Although Humans - can carry the Parasite its life cycle must play out in cats and rodents. This correlation supports the researchers' hypothesis that the personality changes are a result of the Parasite rather than personality influencing the risk of infection.

Toxoplasma Manipulates The Behavior - of its animal host by increasing the concentration of dopamine and by changing levels of certain hormones says study author Jaroslav Flegr of Charles University in Prague Czech Republic.

Humans - can carry the Parasite its life cycle must play out in cats and rodents. Infected mice and rats lose their fear of cats increasing the chance they will be eaten so that the Parasite can then reproduce in a cat's body and spread through its feces [see Protozoa Could Be Controlling Your Brain by Christof Koch Consciousness Redux Scientific American Mind May/June 2011].

In Humans T. Gondii's Effects - are more subtle the infected population has a slightly higher rate of traffic accidents studies have shown and People with schizophrenia have higher rates of infection but until recent years the Parasite was not thought to affect most People's daily lives.

In the new study a pattern appeared in infected men: the longer they had been infected the less conscientious they were. This correlation supports the researchers' hypothesis that the personality changes are a result of the Parasite rather than personality influencing the risk of infection. Past studies that used outdated personality surveys also found that toxoplasmosis related personality changes increased with the length of infection.

T. gondii is most commonly contracted through exposure to undercooked contaminated meat (the rates of infection in France are much higher than in the U.S.) unwashed fruits or vegetables from contaminated soil and tainted cat litter. The Parasite is the reason pregnant women are advised not to clean litter boxes. T. gondii can do much more damage to the fetal brain than the personality tweak it inflicts on adults.

This article was originally published with the title "Common Parasite Linked to Personality Changes" in SA Mind 23, 4, 12 (September 2012)

How a cat Parasite can change your personality. A new study suggests that infection with the cat borne Parasite Toxoplasma gondii could make People more risk prone and likely to start their own business.

Previous studies have correlated T. gondii infections with impulsive and risky behavior as well as with a higher risk of car accidents mental health issues substance abuse disorders and suicide.

Some have speculated on the evolutionary explanation for this Parasite's effects. Because the Parasite reproduces in cats' guts the hosts' behavior needs to change in a way that makes it more likely for them to be eaten by a feline. Studies in rodents support this hypothesis showing that mice that are infected with T. gondii lose their fear of cats.

A Parasite is an organism that lives in another organism called the host and often harms it. It depends on its host for survival.

Without a host a Parasite cannot live grow and multiply. For this reason it rarely kills the host but it can spread diseases and some of these can be fatal.

Parasites unlike predators are usually much smaller than their host and they reproduce at a faster rate.

Fast Facts on Parasites

Parasites live on or in other organisms and thrive to the detriment of their host. Many different Parasites can affect Humans and they can pass on diseases such as malaria and trichomoniasis.
Ensuring that food is fully cooked using insect repellant and following good hand hygiene rules can reduce the risk of getting Parasites.

What is a Parasite ? Parasites range from microscopic in size to over 30 meters in length. A Parasite is an organism that lives within or on a host. The host is another organism.

The Parasite uses the host's resources to fuel its life cycle. It uses the host's resources to maintain itself.

Parasites vary widely. Around 70 percent are not visible to the human eye such as the malarial Parasite but some worm Parasites can reach over 30 meters in length.

Parasites are not a disease but they can spread diseases. Different Parasites have different effects.


There are many types of Parasites and symptoms can vary widely. Sometimes these may resemble the symptoms of other conditions such as a hormone deficiency pneumonia or food poisoning.

Abdominal Pain - some Parasite related problems such as giardiasis and amebic dysentery can cause abdominal pain.

Symptoms - that might occur include:

skin bumps or rashes
weight loss, increased appetite, or both
abdominal pain, diarrhea and vomiting
sleeping problems
aches and pains
weakness and general feeling unwell

Parasites - can pass on a wide variety of conditions so symptoms are hard to predict.

Often there are no symptoms or symptoms appear long after infection but the Parasite can still be transmitted to another person who may develop symptoms.


This is a parasitic pneumonia caused by the Parasite Toxoplasma gondii. It affects the liver, heart, eyes and brain. It occurs worldwide. People can become infected after ingesting raw or undercooked pork, lamb, goat or milk or though contact with food or soil that is contaminated with cat feces.

A person with a healthy immune system will not usually have symptoms but it can pose a risk during pregnancy and for those with a weakened immune system.

Can Parasites Control Human Beings ?

Mind Control By Parasites - Half of the World's Human Population is infected with Toxoplasma Parasites in the body and the brain. Remember that. Toxoplasma gondii is a common Parasite found in the guts of cats it sheds eggs that are picked up by rats and other animals that are eaten by cats.

Toxoplasma forms cysts in the bodies of the intermediate rat hosts including in the brain.

Since cats don't want to eat dead decaying prey Toxoplasma takes the evolutionarily sound course of being a "good" Parasite leaving the rats perfectly healthy. Or are they ?

Oxford scientists discovered that the minds of the infected rats have been subtly altered. In a series of experiments they demonstrated that healthy rats will prudently avoid areas that have been doused with cat urine. In fact when scientists test anti-anxiety drugs on rats they use a whiff of cat urine to induce neurochemical panic.

It turns out that Toxoplasma ridden rats show no such reaction. In fact some of the infected rats actually seek out the cat urine-marked areas again and again. The Parasite alters the mind (and thus the behavior) of the rat for its own benefit.

If the Parasite can alter rat behavior does it have any effect on Humans ?

Dr. E. Fuller Torrey (Associate Director for Laboratory Research at the Stanley Medical Research Institute) noticed links between Toxoplasma and schizophrenia in human beings approximately three billion of whom are infected with T. gondii:

Toxoplasma infection is associated with damage to astrocytes glial cells which surround and support neurons. Schizophrenia is also associated with damage to astrocytes. Pregnant women with high levels of antibodies to Toxoplasma are more likely to give birth to children who will develop schizophrenia.

Toxoplasma Gondii - tops the list as the most famous and most controversial neurological Parasite. This tiny protozoan doesn?t look like much more than a blob but once it makes its way to the brain it can radically alter the behavior of hosts like rats, cats and yes even Humans.

T. gondiis life begins in cat feces where its eggs (known as oocytes or egg cells) wait to be picked up by carriers like rats. Once theyre safe and warm in the guts of their temporary hosts the oocytes morph into tachyzoites the unassuming little blobs that can really do some damage. Those tachyzoites migrate into their hosts muscles eyes and brains where they can remain hidden for decades without doing much of anything. when the moment comes to strike the little T. gondii tachyzoites alter their hosts brain chemistry. Infected rats actually become sexually aroused by the smell of cats and leap fearlessly into their claws where they die and release the tachyzoites back into the cats allowing the egg-laying cycle to start anew.

Creepy perhaps but not exactly the stuff of nightmares except that rats aren't the only hosts in which T. gondii hibernates. Some researchers estimate that as much as 30 percent of the People on earth more than two billion of us are carrying little T. gondii tachyzoites around in our brains right now.

What might this mean for human behavior ? Just as a start some studies have found that cases of schizophrenia rose sharply around the turn of the twentieth century when domestic cat ownership became common.

We often see symptoms like altered activity levels changes in risk behaviors and decreased reaction times says Joanne Webster a parasitology researcher at Imperial College London. In some cases they become more severe like schizophrenia.

Another paper published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B argued that in areas with high T. gondii infection rates these tiny Parasites could cumulatively alter the behavioral patterns of entire cultures. Infected parents researchers found have a 30 percent chance of passing the Parasite on to their children.

If that all seems a little far from home though consider this: Researchers estimate that more than 60 million People in the U.S. alone currently carry T. gondii and most of those have no idea because the Parasite often causes no symptoms at all. Until the day it strikes that is.

Toxo appers to know how to destroy fear and anxiety circuits in the brain. It forms encapsulated cysts all over the brain and preferentially knows how to home in on the part of the brain that is all about fear and anxiety a brain region called the amygdala. The amygdala is where you do your fear conditioning. The amygdala is what's hyperactive in People with post traumatic stress disorder the amygdala is all about predator aversion. Toxo takes up the dendrites the branches and cables that neurons have to connect to each other and shrivelled them up in the amygdala it was disconnecting circuits. You wind up with fewer cells there. This is a Parasite that is unwiring the critical parts of the brain for fear and anxiety and predator aversion has been knocked out while creating a sexual attraction to cat urine. It knows how to find those circuits in the brain and rewire them for it's own purposes.

Two different groups independantly reported that People who are Toxo infected have 3 to 4 times the likelihood of being killed in car accidents involving reckless speeding. Also People who die in motorcycle accidents seems to have high rates of Toxoplasma infection.

Mind Control: How Parasites Manipulate Cognitive Functions in Their Insect Hosts Frederic Libersat*, Maayan Kaiser and Stav Emanuel

Department of Life Sciences and Zlotowski Center for Neurosciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel

Neuro Parasitology - is an emerging branch of science that deals with Parasites that can control the nervous system of the host. It offers the possibility of discovering how one species (the Parasite) modifies a particular neural network and particular behaviors of another species (the host). Such Parasite host interactions developed over millions of years of evolution provide unique tools by which one can determine how neuromodulation up-or-down regulates specific behaviors. In some of the most fascinating manipulations the Parasite taps into the host brain neuronal circuities to manipulate hosts cognitive functions.


The ability of Parasites to alter the behavior of their hosts has recently generated an unusual interest in both scientists and non scientists. One reason is that Parasites alter the behavior of their host in such a way as to suggest a hijacking of their ability to make decisions. How Parasites manipulate their hosts is not an esoteric topic fascinating with its evocation of gruesome zombie movies involving body snatchers. It is rather the understanding of these processes provide fundamental insights into the neurobiology of behavior. Although our understanding of the neural mechanisms of parasitic manipulation is still lacking there have been some major advances over the past few years. Since most animals are insects it is not surprising that many case studies of animals that are manipulated by Parasites are insects. The diversity of Parasites that can manipulate insect behavior ranges from viruses to worms and also includes other insects that have evolved to become Parasites (Hughes and Libersat 2018). In this short review we will focus on mind control or the manipulation of cognitive functions in Parasite Insect associations.

Suicidal Behavior

Some parasitic fungi and worms manipulate their hosts navigational system in most strange ways. Such manipulation ends with the suicide of the host. An ant falling victim to parasitic fungus of the genus Cordyceps is manipulated to produce a behavior that facilitate dispersal of the fungus optimizing the Parasite's chances of reproduction (Hughes, 2015).

T. Gondii - Although Humans are dead-end host for the Parasite, Humans can be infected and some scientists have suggested that T. gondii infection can alter human behavior. Because the Parasite infects the brain it is suspected of making People more reckless even being liable for certain cases of schizophrenia (Fuglewicz et al. 2017). Such a hypothesis is still highly controversial and will require more investigations.

A Parasite from your cat can change your brain in strange ways.

Parasites That Can Control Human Brains - Pauli Poisuo

There's a reason why "I'm losing my mind" is such a popular saying. Few things are more terrifying than the idea of your thinking organ being taken away from you because with that you'd lose everything else as well. Imagine how horrendous it would be if there was some unseen Parasite that could build its home in your brain and slowly but inevitably affect it in unpleasant ways. Now you can stop imagining because these Parasites very much exist. Of course we're not talking about actual mind control. There are no zombifying parasitic organisms that can turn a human being into a mindless drone like this fungus does to ants ? at least as far as we know. That doesn't mean that the human brain doesn't have more than its share of tiny creatures that can latch onto it and influence it in strange and often terrifying ways. Here's a look at them and their strange effects.

A Parasite from your cat can change your brain in strange ways.

Cat owners may have bumped into this one while reading about the nastier parts of how to care for their pet. The CDC describes Toxoplasma gondii as a single celled Parasite that infects over 40 million People in the United States alone and you can get it from contact with cat feces contaminated food and water or mother to child transmission. Though most carriers have healthy immune systems that can keep the Parasite at bay. Toxoplasma can be a terrifying thing for infants and People with weakened immune systems. For them a Toxoplasma infection can turn into toxoplasmosis which seems like a severe flu with muscle aches and pains and can last for over a month. Unlike regular flu a severe toxoplasmosis can heavily damage the brain, eyes and other organs. This can even be fatal as seen in Trainspotting where the drug addict Tommy dies after contracting toxoplasmosis from his kitten.

Toxoplasma Gondii - can mess with your brain in pretty odd ways. According to research by the University of Leeds it may directly affect the production of dopamine which can lead into neurological disorders such as ADHD schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease. The Guardian reports that a Toxoplasma infection may also be able to turn its carriers into go-getters who are significantly more likely to start careers in business management and entrepreneurship. Does this mean that capitalism is a literal disease that you can catch from cat feces ? Research is ongoing.

A Parasite that can make you forget how to walk Read More:\

Sometimes a brain Parasite can lurk in your head for years before it wakes up and starts causing trouble. Live Science reports a particularly gruesome incident from 2018 when a 31 year old New England man suddenly developed a headache and a fever and started having trouble walking. The confused man went to the emergency room where the doctors took an MRI of his brain and made a horrifying discovery. There was a large (3.1 inches by 2.7 inches by 2.3 inches) mass in his brain. When they took a sample of it they discovered that the strange growth was teeming with small organisms.

Could microscopic Parasites have the ability to take control of a Human being ? Scientists are starting to think so.

A Third Of The World's Population may have a parasitic infection that scientists believe to have an impact on Human behavior.

Personality Changes

The protozoan Parasite called Toxoplasma gondii has long been considered to be an "asymptomatic" Parasite in Humans. Lab tests and a new report suggest that it may cause or intensify severe forms of schizophrenia could have an impact on how Human hormones are secreted in the brain and may cause Personality Changes.

Scientists have determined that the Parasite which thrives in rats and reproduces in house cats tricks rats into getting into harm's way.

STUDY: Humans Evolving Into Dumber Species

"The Parasite grows in a rodent but it needs to get into a cat somehow to reproduce" says Shelley Adamo a biologist who studies neuroparasitology at Dalhousie University in Halifax Canada. "When a rat becomes infected the Parasite somehow makes rats become attracted to cat urine when it would normally avoid it."

The CDC estimates that more than 60 million Americans carry the single-celled Parasite. Most People get it from infected undercooked meat or from cats. According to the agency "of those who are infected very few have symptoms because a healthy person's immune system usually keeps the Parasite from causing illness." Scientists are starting to rethink that theory.

In a study published Wednesday in the Journal of Experimental Biology Jaroslav Flegr a scientist at Charles University in Prague suggests that People infected with Toxoplasma have slower reaction times and are "less altruistic" than non-infected People.

Women infected with Toxoplasma "more often report that diplomacy is not their strong point that some People have the power to impose their will on others with hypnosis and that they have a weak instinct for self-preservation: in situations where somebody else might be afraid for example being alone in a forest or in an empty house at night they remain calm."

Behavior Altering Parasites - are Parasites with two or more hosts capable of causing changes in the behavior of one of their hosts to facilitate their transmission, sometimes directly affecting the hosts' decision making and behavior control mechanisms. They do this by making the intermediate host where they may reproduce a sexually more likely to be eaten by a predator at a higher trophic level which becomes the definitive host where the Parasite reproduces sexually the mechanism is therefore sometimes called Parasite increased trophic facilitation or Parasite increased trophic transmission. Examples can be found in bacteria, protozoa, viruses and animals.

Among the behavioral changes caused by Parasites is carelessness making their hosts easier prey. The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii for example infects small rodents and causes them to become careless and attracted to the smell of feline urine which increases their risk of predation and the Parasite's chance of infecting a cat its definitive host.

Parasites may alter the host's behavior by infecting the host's central nervous system or by altering its neurochemical communication studied in neuro Parasitology.


Parasite Manipulations - can be either direct or indirect. Indirect manipulation is the most frequent method used by behavioral altering Parasites while the direct approach is far less common. Direct manipulation is when the Parasite itself affects the host and induces a behavioral response for example by creating neuroactive compounds that stimulate a response in the host's central nervous system CNS a method mostly practiced by Parasites that reside within the CNS. Affecting the host's neural system is complicated and manipulation includes initiating immune cascades in the host. Determination of the causative factor is difficult especially whether the behavioral change is the result of direct manipulation from the Parasite or an indirect response of the host's immune system. A direct approach to behavioral manipulation is often very costly for the Parasite that results in a trade off between the benefits of the manipulation (eg. fitness increase) and the energy it costs. The more common approach for Parasites is to indirectly induce behavioral responses by interacting with the host's immune system to create the necessary neuroactive compounds to induce a desired behavioral response. Parasites can also indirectly affect the behavior of their hosts by disturbing their metabolism development or immunity. Parasitic castrators drastically modify their hosts' metabolism and reproduction sometimes by secreting castrating hormones changing their behavior and physiology to benefit the Parasite.

Parasites may alter hosts' behaviors in ways that increase their likelihood of transmission (eg. by the host being ingested by a predator) result in the Parasite's release at appropriate sites eg. by changes in the host's preferences for habitats increase Parasite survival or increase the host's likelihood of being infected with more Parasites.

Evolution of Induced Behaviors

The adaptive manipulation hypothesis posits that specific behavioral alterations induced in a host can be used by Parasites to increase their fitness. Under this hypothesis induced behaviors are the result of natural selection acting upon the Parasite's extended phenotype in this case its host's behavior. Many behaviors induced by obligate Parasites to complete their lifecycles are examples of adaptive manipulation because of their clear relationship to Parasite fitness. Evidence has shown that infection by the parasitic worm Pomphorhynchus laevis leads to altered drifting behavior in its intermediate host the amphipod Gammarus pulex; this altered behavior increases its host's predation risk by fish which are P. laevis's definitive hosts. The induced behavioral change in the host thus leads to the Parasite's increased success in completing its life cycle. In general whether a specific behavioral change serves an adaptive purpose for the Parasite the host or both depends on the entire "host-Parasite system": The life cycle of the Pathogen its virulence and g and the host's immune response.


The way in which Parasites induce behavioral changes in hosts has been compared to the way a neurobiologist would effect a similar change in a lab. A scientist may stimulate a certain pathway in order to produce a specific behavior such as increased appetite or lowered anxiety Parasites also produce specific behavioral changes in their hosts but rather than stimulate specific neurological pathways they appear to target broader areas of the central nervous system. While the proximate mechanisms underlying this broad targeting have not been fully characterized two mechanisms used by Parasites to alter behavior in vertebrate hosts have been identified: infection of the central nervous system and altered neurochemical communication.

Infection of the Central Nervous System

Some Parasites alter host behavior by infecting neurons in the host's central nervous system. The host's central nervous system responds to the Parasite as it would to any other infection. The hallmarks of such response include local inflammation and the release of chemicals such as cytokines. The immune response itself is responsible for induced behavioral changes in many cases of parasitic infection. Parasites that are known to induce behavioral changes through central nervous system inflammation in their hosts include Toxoplasma gondii in rats, Trypanosoma cruzi in mice and Plasmodium mexicanum in the Mexican lizard. Toxoplasma gondii induces behavioral changes in rats by infecting central nervous system neurons.

While some Parasites exploit their hosts' typical immune responses others seem to alter the immune response itself. For example the typical immune response in rodents is characterized by heightened anxiety. Infection with Toxoplasma gondii inhibits this response increasing the risk of predation by T. gondii's subsequent hosts. Research suggests that the inhibited anxiety-response could be the result of immunological damage to the limbic system.

Altered Neurochemical Communication

Parasites that induce behavioral changes in their hosts often exploit the regulation of social behavior in the brain. Social behavior is regulated by neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin in the emotional centers of the brain primarily the amygdala and the hypothalamus and although Parasites may be capable of stimulating specific neurochemical pathways to induce behavioral changes evidence suggests that they alter neurochemical communication through broad rather than specific targeting. For example Toxoplasma gondii attaches to the hypothalamus rather than target a specific cellular pathway; this broad targeting leads to a widespread increase in host dopamine levels which may in turn account for the loss of aversion to cat odor. In some cases T. gondii is believed to cause increases in dopamine levels by secreting another compound, L-Dopa which may trigger a rise in dopamine levels though concrete evidence for this mechanism has not yet been demonstrated. This rise in dopamine levels induces a loss of aversion to cat odor in the rats increasing the risk of predation by cats Toxo Gondii's definitive host. The mechanistic details underlying the increase in dopamine levels and the way it affects the rat's behavioral change remain elusive.

The original function of such secretions may have been to suppress the immune system of the host as described above. The trematode Schistosoma mansoni secretes opioid peptides into the host's bloodstream influencing both its immune response and neural function. Other sources suggest a possible origin in molecular mimicry.

Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma Gondii

This single celled creature is perhaps the most famous of all host manipulating Parasites because it operates close to home. It mainly infects rats and mice in order to be eaten by a cat so that it can reproduce. Infected rats and mice lose their fear of the smell of cats according to a 2007 study. Instead they become attracted to a pheromone in the cats' urine. The animal becomes less likely to hide under the floorboards and more likely to sniff around its feline predators putting the Parasite on course for its ultimate destination: the cat's stomach.

Between 30 and 60% of People are infected by Toxo Gondii. It's less clear that the Parasite affects human behaviour. In 2006 Kevin Lafferty of the US Geological Survey in Santa Barbara California found some evidence of personality changes in People infected by the Parasite. So far this is only a correlation which is far from conclusive. Lafferty says: "my money is on cause and effect".

Toxoplasmosis is also unusually common in People with schizophrenia but again it's not clear what that means or how significant it is. "Schizophrenia is a complicated syndrome perhaps with multiple causes" says Lafferty. He adds that there are plenty of infected People that don't have schizophrenia and plenty of People with schizophrenia who aren't infected. "Still I am comfortable in saying that Toxoplasma is a correlated risk factor for schizophrenia."

Toxoplasma - If you believe the headlines Sixty Percent of us may be infected with a Parasite that changes behaviour. Toxoplasma a natural Parasite of cats is said to cause rage impulsiveness and even mental illness. Most People only know Toxoplasma as the reason pregnant ladies aren?t supposed to clean kitty litter. In recent times though this Parasite has garnered quite a reputation as a mind-controlling zombie Parasite. A reputation that may in fact be slightly exaggerated.

Rest assured the mind control phenomenon does exist in nature; I myself have been studying a different mind controlling Parasite Dicrocoelium dendriticum over the course of my Ph.D. What most People don't realize though is that us scientists have little idea how exactly these Parasites hijack their hosts. In most cases researchers must determine if the Parasite is in fact willfully controlling the host by assessing the evolutionary value of the trait.

The most common instances of manipulation occur when a Parasite must be eaten by the next host in the life cycle. In the case of the organism I study this involves making the leap from an ant into a grazing mammal. Because deer don?t tend to search out and eat ants the Parasite hijacks an ant and forces it to climb and cling to plants; which grazing mammals do eat. There they wait until something comes along and gobbles them up along with the plant they are on. Even more spectacular is the fact the Parasite turns the behaviour on and off. When temperatures rise and the clinging ants are in danger of overheating the Parasite relinquishes control but as soon as the temperature cools they come straight back sometimes to the exact flower they left.

It seems like a no brainer that the Parasite must be controlling the ants but a careful examination of the behaviour in question needs to be undertaken in lieu of finding the chemical or mechanical means it may be using. First the Parasite must have a reason to manipulate the host. In the above example this would be the need to move from an ant into a grazer. Next any behaviour being changed by a Parasite should act to achieve the desired outcome and only occur in infected individuals. Again looking at the Dicrocoelium example we can see that the clinging behaviour shown only by infected ants will in fact increase their exposure to grazing mammals. The story of Toxoplasmas alleged behaviour manipulation doesn?t quite meet these criteria.

The story begins with the unique relationship between Toxoplasma and cats. Toxoplasma infects all not just cats but everything from lizards to Humans and they all become infected in one of three ways: 1) coming into contact with the Parasite offspring in cat feces 2) eating infected meat or 3) from ones mother while in the womb. Due to a quirk of biology though it is only within cats that Toxoplasma completes sexual reproduction. This is why cats are the only ones to shed Toxoplasma in their poop and why pregnant ladies shouldn't go near said poop. It has long been theorized that Toxoplasma should prefer being in cats due to the benefits of sexual reproduction. Sex mixes the gene pool which benefits a population by creating novel gene combinations that drive evolution. This in theory is the reason Toxoplasma would manipulate a host to enter cats. Many believed they confirmed this theory when infected rodents started to display some odd behaviours. Since then a slew of studies have claimed that Toxoplasma influences behaviour including studies famously investigating Humans. It wasn't until a lab from Australia started digging through these studies that anyone questioned the claims.

The original work on rodents stated infected hosts showed reduced movement and anxiety plus a remarkable attraction to the smell of cat urine. This definitely seems like something the Parasite might induce to increase the chances it gets eaten. Upon closer inspection however the criteria necessary to conclude Toxoplasma has evolved the trait of manipulation are not fully met. Many studies report either no effects on behaviour or changes to behaviours that have no bearing on the chances of being eaten by a cat. Behaviours like social interactions or dominance. This casts doubt onto the idea that Toxoplasma evolved the adaptive trait of mind control. Rather it looks like some rodents with Parasites sometimes do weird things. Plus there is another species of Parasite Eimeria veriformis that also causes an attracting to cat urine in mice but this Parasite dies if eaten by a cat offering no advantage to manipulation.

What then of the presumed benefit of cat hosts? Is it really enough that selection would favour the mind control trait? Again upon closer inspection maybe not. The genetic profile of Toxoplasma Populations globally appears to be a predominantly asexual one. There is little genetic mixing and only three main lineages dominate in Europe and North America. Meaning the Parasite seems to be doing fine without having sex in cats and is being transmitted via the food chain or from mother to offspring. Toxoplasma certainly hasn?t had a problem invading many environments including those with a distinct lack of cats. Beluga whales in the arctic are infected and now pose a health risk to Inuit People who eat them. And foxes too on cat free islands off the coast of Norway now carry Toxoplasma.

We must now question the bold claims that Toxoplasma causes aberrant behaviours in Humans. In the largest study to date looking for the top reported behaviour changes in Humans things like impulsiveness anxiety, depression and mental illness no correlation between infection and behaviour was found.

The ability of Parasites to manipulate hosts is one of the most fascinating areas of biological research. As the Toxoplasma story illustrates though it is very easy to attribute a potential quirk in behaviour to a highly specialized Parasite gaining control over its host. Not all hope is lost though for Toxoplasmas master manipulator reputation. New research into the potential mechanisms used to influence behaviour may discover the smoking gun that definitively implicates Toxoplasma. All though this research isn?t yet producing headlines about zombie Parasites this is exactly the research the field needs. It may ultimately yield the best headlines of all. Key to mind control found or Zombie gene discovered by Parasite researchers.

Multiple Personality Disorders

The victim may have many Multiple Personality Disorders and may not be aware of them.

Dissociative Identity Disorder - used to be called Multiple Personality Disorder. It is a rare and complex psychological condition where a person?s identity is fragmented into two or more distinct personality states called alters.

The Facts

Estimates on the prevalence of DID vary widely. Studies show it can affect anything from 0.01% to 15% of People. It is more common in areas that have experience large-scale trauma such as war or natural disasters. DID is more commonly diagnosed in women than men. The majority of People with DID have experienced severe trauma in childhood and dissociate as a way of coping with a situation that is too violent or traumatic for their conscious self to handle. DID was called Multiple Personality Disorder until 1994 when the name was changed to reflect a better understanding of the condition.

The Myths

Myth: People with DID have Multiple Personalities that they call on at will.

Reality: People with DID have experienced a fragmentation or splintering of their identity rather than a growth of new identities. For the vast majority of People with DID switching between alters is involuntary and can't be identified by a casual observer at all.
Myth: People with DID are dangerous or violent.
Reality: People with DID are no more likely to be violent than anyone else. There are very few documented cases linking crime to DID. The idea of an ? evil ? alter is not true.
Myth: DID isn't real and People who say they have it are just pretending.
Reality: The diagnosis of DID continues to remain controversial among mental health professionals as understanding of the illness develops but there is no question that the symptoms are real and People do experience them.
Myth: DID is the same as schizophrenia.
Reality: DID and schizophrenia are very different illnesses. Schizophrenia is a psychotic illness where a person may experience delusions paranoia and hallucinations. It does not involve dissociation. People with DID are not delusional or hallucinating their alters.


The following criteria must be met for a person to be diagnosed with dissociative identity disorder:

The person experiences two or more distinct identities or personality states, each with its own way of thinking and relating. Some cultures see these states as the experience of being possessed. The person experiences amnesia and gaps in the recall of everyday events personal information or traumatic events. The person must be distressed by the disorder or have trouble functioning in their life as a result of the disorder. The disturbance is not part of normal cultural or religious practice. For example a child with an imaginary friend is not indicative of mental illness. The symptoms are not due to substance abuse or other medical conditions such as epileptic seizures.

People with DID also commonly suffer from symptoms of PTSD and trauma like:

suicidal thoughts
sleep problems
obsessive-compulsive symptoms
psychotic symptoms.

People living with DID can have a range of symptoms which may appear at different times. Some People may have many obvious alters that they switch between throughout the day while others may have one alter that they access only very occasionally.


Dissociation is a coping mechanism that a person uses to disconnect from a stressful or traumatic situation or to separate traumatic memories from normal awareness. By dissociating painful memories from everyday thought processes a person can maintain a level of functioning as though the trauma had not occurred.

Episodes of DID can be triggered by a variety of real and symbolic traumas including mild events such as being involved in a minor traffic accident, illness or stress. Reminders of past trauma can also trigger a dissociative episode. The person with DID may or may not be aware of the other personality states and memories of the times when an alter is dominant.

People with DID typically also have dissociative amnesia which is memory loss that is more severe than normal forgetfulness. An episode of amnesia usually occurs suddenly and may last minutes hours or rarely months.


DID is likely caused by many factors but many People with DID have experienced severe physical verbal or sexual abuse during childhood usually before the age of nine. The stress of war or natural disasters also can bring on dissociative disorders. A child who learns to dissociate in order to endure a traumatic experience may use this coping mechanism in response to stressful situations throughout life.

Seeking Help Diagnosis & Treatment

While treatment for DID can take a long time it is effective. People with DID should see a mental health professional with experience with dissociation. The goal for treatment is the integration of separate alters into one unified personality.

Treatment for DID usually takes a multi-stage approach.

The first stage focusses on stabilising symptoms and ensuring safety.
The second stage involved processing traumatic memories in a safe and supportive environment.
The third stage involves unifying the alters into a cohesive identity.

Therapy for DID is usually long-term. While there is no medication that can treat dissociative disorders themselves medications may be prescribed for associated depression, anxiety or other health issues.

Related: Antidepressant medication, Psychological therapies

Caring for someone with DID

If someone you love has been diagnosed with DID you may feel overwhelmed and confused. There are many myths and misconceptions about DID. Movie and TV portrayals of People with DID who have evil alters or violent personalities are incorrect and contribute to the stigma surrounding the disorder. It can help to educate yourself as much as possible about DID. Talk to a mental health professional to get accurate information and to voice your concerns. Treatment for DID can involve revisiting past traumatic experiences which may be upsetting for friends and family. Make sure you look after yourself and seek help to look after your own mental health.

Self Help Strategies include:

Make time to regularly do things you enjoy either alone or with friends. Talk to other People about how you feel. Ask a health professional or contact the SANE Help Centre ? for details of support groups and other services for family carers in your local area. Try to focus on the things that you can control, not on the things outside of your control. You cannot control the behaviour of a person with DID but you can manage your reaction. Caring for someone with DID can be unpredictable and tiring. Its important to look after yourself.

Why was Multiple Personality Disorder renamed ?

The DSM-III grouped the diagnosis with the other four major dissociative disorders using the term "Multiple Personality Disorder". The DSM-IV made more changes to DID than any other Dissociative Disorder and renamed it DID. The name was changed for two reasons.

Do Some Addicts Have Multiple Personality Disorder ?

The short answer is: Yes some addicts can be diagnosed with psychiatric disorders such as Multiple Personality Disorder (M.P.D).

Causes of DID: Real or Perceived Mental, Physical or Sexual Abuse

My experience with multiple personalities that use alcohol or drugs often have only one personality who uses. Sometimes the host personality may be aware that he/she drinks but no clue about getting stoned. In discussing the addictive behavior quite often the emerging personality years prior chose to use an addictive path to distract the host personality from some form of abuse (mental, physical or sexual). Or even still chose to be sexually promiscuous as a survival mode on the streets.

Why Use Drugs or Alcohol ?

This is really a simple one to explain. Just like Bi-polar Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, Hyper-Attention Deficit Disorder and just about any type of disorder can crossover into addictions because People strive to feel normal. So yes I have many clients who are addicts that do have Multiple Personality Disorder. With alcohol, drugs, gambling, sex and any kind of addiction there are those who will do anything to feel normal. Whether to not feel the pain of shame or to settle the chaos inside People choose everyday to medicate in an effort to distract avoid or to deny their life struggles.

Major clinical issues with personality disorders and alcohol use.

• Personality disorders (in particular antisocial and borderline) and alcohol use disorders
frequently co-exist.
• Alcohol can exacerbate the sedative effects of some antidepressants such as tricyclics and
• Alcohol can exacerbate the sedative effects of carbamazepine, lithium and sodium valproate.
• Acamprosate or naltrexone can be considered for long-term abstinence with naltrexone
showing effectiveness in moderating drinking in those with antisocial personality traits.

Effects of alcohol on personality disorders

• Personality disorders (in particular antisocial and borderline) and alcohol use disorders frequently co-exist.
• Personality disorders are associated with an earlier age of onset of alcohol use disorders.

• Symptom severity of alcohol dependence continues to increase over time in those with personality disorders.
• Personality disorders (in particular anti-social characteristics) are associated with:
– More severe alcohol disorders.
– Poorer long-term drinking outcome.
– Poorer outcomes for treatment of alcoholism.
• Personality disorders and alcohol use disorders are associated with:
– More criminal convictions.
– High levels of novelty-seeking behaviour and impulsivity.
• Alcohol use also significantly complicates personality disorders.
Interactions between alcohol and therapeutic agents for personality disorders
• Alcohol can exacerbate the sedative effects of carbamazepine, lithium and sodium valproate.
• Alcohol can exacerbate the sedative effects of some antidepressants such as tricyclics and mirtazepine.
Alcohol toxicity and risk of overdose may occur through the inhibition of CYPs involved in the
metabolism of alcohol.
• Interactions between antidepressants and acamprosate used to treat alcohol dependence are
minimal as are interactions between antidepressants and disulfiram and naltrexone also used to treat alcohol dependence.
Management approaches to comorbid personality disorders and alcohol use
• Carbamazepine and sodium valproate can be used in alcohol withdrawal to reduce the risk of seizures.
• While studies are yet to confirm this cabarmazepine has been discussed as being useful in the prevention of relapse to drinking.
• Acamprosate or naltrexone can be considered for long-term abstinence with naltrexone showing effectiveness in moderating drinking in those with antisocial personality traits. However medication adherence may be problematic.
• As People with comorbid personality disorders and substance use are more prone to risk taking and subsequent injury individuals prescribed with naltrexone need to be aware of its implications for emergency pain management.
• Patients prescribed with naltrexone should be advised to carry a medical warning card or bracelet which states they will not respond to opioid analgesia (obtainable from Orphan Australia).
• Disulfiram may be problematic as these patients may drink alcohol impulsively despite being warned of the risks.

Can Parasites Control Human Beings ?

Mind Control By Parasites - Half of The World's Human Population is infected with Toxoplasma Parasites in the body and the brain. Toxoplasma gondii is a common Parasite found in the guts of cats it sheds eggs that are picked up by rats and other animals that are eaten by cats. Toxoplasma forms cysts in the bodies of the intermediate rat hosts including in the brain.

Toxoplasma Gondii

A Parasite with the ability to change behaviour

Toxoplasma Gondii

There's a whole new realm of neuroscience of things going on below the surface affecting our behaviour. It's got to do with Parasites manipulating our behaviour. There are all sorts of Parasites out there that get into some organism and what they need to do is parrasite the organism and increase the likelihood that they the Parasite will be fruitful and multiply and in some cases they can manipulate the behaiour of the host.

There's a barnacle that rides on the back of a crab and is able to inject oestrogenic hormones into the crab if the crab is male and at that point the male's behaviour becomes feminised. The male crab digs a hole in the sand for his eggs except he has no eggs but the barnacle sure does and has just succeeded in getting this guy to build a nest for him. There are other examples where wasps Parasites caterpillars and get them to defend the wasps's nests for them - extraordinary examples.

The Parasite is one in the world of mammals where Parasites are changing mammalian behaviour it's got to do with a protozoan Parasite called Toxoplasms gondi (Toxo). If you're ever pregnanat or if you're ever around anyone who's pregnant you know you immediately get skittish about cat faeces cat bedding cat everything, because it could carry Toxo. You do not want to get Toxoplasma gondii into a foetal nervous system. Toxoplasmosis in pregnancy is a potential disaster.

The normal life cycle for Toxo is an amazing part of natural history. Toxo can only reproduce sexually in the gut of a cat. It comes out in the cat faeces, and faeces are eaten by rodents. Toxo's evolutionary challenge at that point is to figure out how to get rodents inside cat's stomachs. It could have done this in really unsubtle ways such as cripple the rodent or some such thing. Toxo instead has developed an amazing capacity to alter innate behaviour in rodents.

Take a lab rat who is 5,000 generations into being a lab rat (ie. since the ancestor actually ran around in the real world) and you put some cat urine in one corner of their cage they're going to move to the other side. This is a completely innate hard-wired reaction to the smell of cats the cat pheromones. Take a Toxo-infected rodent and they're no longer afraid of the smell of cats in fact they become attracted to it. Toxo knows how to make cat urine smell attractive to rats and rats go and check it out and that rat is now much more likely to wind up in the cat's stomach. Toxo's circle of life completed.

This was reported by a group in the UK a number of years ago. Not a whole lot was known about what Toxo was doing in the brain the neurobiological aspects. The rodents rats and mice really do become attracted to cat urine when they've been infected with Toxo. You might say this is a rodent doing all sorts of screwy stuff because it's got this Parasite turning its brain into Swiss cheese or something. It's just non-specific behavioural chaos. No these are incredibly normal animals. Their olfaction is normal their social behaviour is normal their learning and memory is normal. All of that it's not just a generically screwy animal.

Toxo seems to know how to destroy fear and anxiety circuits. It's not that either. Because these are rats who are still innately afraid of bright lights. They're nocturnal animals. They're afraid of big open spaces. You can condition them to be afraid of novel things. The system works perfectly well there. Somehow Toxo can laser out this one fear pathway, this aversion to predator odours. The first thing we did was introduce Toxo into a rat and it took about six weeks for it to migrate from its gut up into its nervous system. At that point we looked to see where has it gone in the brain? It formed cysts sort of latent encapsulated cysts and it wound up all over the brain.

Then we looked at how much winds up in different areas in the brain and it turned out Toxo preferentially knows how to home in on the part of the brain that is all about fear and anxiety a brain region called the amygdala. The amygdala is where you do your fear conditioning; the amygdala is what's hyperactive in People with post traumatic stress disorder the amygdala is all about pathways of predator aversion and Toxo knows how to get in there.

We then saw that Toxo would take the dendrites the branch and cables that neurons have to connect to each other and shrivelled them up in the amygdala. It was disconnecting circuits. You wind up with fewer cells there. This is a Parasite that is unwiring this stuff in the critical part of the brain for fear and anxiety. That doesn't tell us a thing about why only its predatory aversion has been knocked out whereas fear of bright lights etc. is still in there. It knows how to find that particular circuitry.

What's it doing ? It's not just destroying this fear aversive response it's creating something new. It's creating an attraction to the cat urine. Here is where this gets utterly bizarre. You look at circuitry in the brain and there's a reasonably well-characterised circuit that activates neurons which become metabolically active circuits where they're talking to each other a reasonably well understood process that's involved in predator aversion. It involves neurons in the amygdala the hypothalamus and some other brain regions getting excited. This is a very well characterised circuit.

Meanwhile there is a circuit that has to do with sexual attraction. As it happens part of this circuit courses through the amygdala then goes to different areas of the brain than the fear pathways.

When you look at normal rats and expose them to cat urine, cat pheromones they have a stress response: their stress hormone levels go up and they activate this classical fear circuitry in the brain. Now you take Toxo-infected rats right around the time when they start liking the smell of cat urine, you expose them to cat pheromones and you don't see the stress hormone release. What you see is that the fear citcuit doesn't activate normally and instead the sexual arousal activates some. Toxo knows how to hijack the sexual reward pathway. You get males infected with Toxo and expose them to a lot of the cat pheromones and their testes get bigger. Somehow this Parasite knows how to make cat urine smell sexually arousing to rodents and they go and check it out.

It takes over sexual arousal circuitry. At this point we don't know what the basis is of the attraction in the females. It's something we're working on.

Some work has been done by a group at Leeds in the UK who are looking at the Toxo genome and we're picking up on this collaboratively. Toxo is a protozoan Parasite. Toxo and mammals had a common ancestor (this was probably billions of years ago). You look in the Toxo genome and it's got two versions of a gene called tyrosine hydroxylase. If you were a neurochemistry type you would be leaping up in shock and excitement at this point.

Tyrosine Hydroxylase is the critical enzyme for making dopamine the neurotransmitter in the brain that's all about reward and anticipation of reward. Cocaine works on the dopamine system as do all sorts of other euphoriants. Dopamine is about pleasure attraction and anticipation. The Toxo genome has the mammalian gene for making dopamine. It's got a little tail on the gene that specifies that when this is turned into the actual enzyme it gets secreted out of the Toxo and into neurons act as if they are pleasurably anticipatory it takes over the brain chemistry of it all on its own.

Look at closely related Parasites to Toxo - do they have this gene ? Absolutely not. Now look at the Toxo genome and look at genes related to other brain messengers: serotonin, acetycholine, norfepinephrine and so on and you go through every single gene you can recall. Zero. Toxo doesn't have them Toxo's got one gene which allows it to just plug into the whole world of mammalian reward systems. That's what we know.

At this point you say well what about other species ? What does Toxo do to Humans ? That's reminiscent of what's going on in rodents. Clinical dogma is you first get a Toxo infection. If you're pregnanat it gets into the foetal nervous system - a huge disaster. Otherwise if you get a Toxo infection it has phases of inflammation eventually it goes into this latent asymptomatic stage which is when these cysts form in the brain. Which is in a rat when it stops being anything boring like asymptomatic and when the behaviours starts occurring. That's when the Parasite starts making tyrosine hydroxylase.

So what about Humans ? A small amount of literature is coming out now reporting neuropsychological testing on men who are Toxo-infected showing they get a little bit impulsive. Women less so and this may have some parallels perhaps with this whole testosterone aspect of the story that we're seeing. Two different groups independently have reported that People who are Toxo-infected have three to four times the likelihood of being killed in car accidents involving reckless speeding.

In other words you take a Toxo-ubfected rat and it does some absurd thing that it should be innately skittish about like going right up to cat smells. Maybe you take a Toxo-infected Human and they start having a proclivity towards doing silly things that we should be innately averse to like having your body hurtle through space at high g-forces. Maybe this is the same neurobiology. This is not to say that Toxo has evolved the need to get Humans into cat stomachs. It's just sheer convergence. It's the same nuts and bolts neurobiology in us and in a rodent and does the same thing.

On a certain level this is a protozoan Parasite that knows more about the neurobiology of anxiety and fear than 25,000 neuroscientists standing on each other's shoulders and this is not a rare pattern. Look at the rabies virus; rabies knows more about aggression than neuroscientists do. It knows how to make you rabid. It knows how to make you want to bite someone and that saliva of yours contains rabies virus particles passed on to another person.

The Toxo story is to do with treatments for phobias no doubt it's also a tip of the iceberg of other parasitic stuff going on out there. Even in the larger sense who knows what other unseen realms of biology make our behaviour far less autonomous than lots of folks would like to think.

With regard to Parasite infections like Toxo in Humans there is a big prevalence in certain parts of the world. There's a higher prevalence in the tropics where typically more than 50 percent of People are infected. Lower rates occur in more temperate zones for reasons that I do not understand. France has really high rates of Toxo infection. In much of the developing world it's bare feet absorbing it through soil where cats may have been. It's food that may not have been washed sufficiently and absorption through hands. People in the developing world are more subject to all sorts of infections.

A few years ago I sat down with a couple of the Toxo doctors in our hospital who do the Toxo testing in the obstetrician gynaecologist clincis. They hadn't heard about this behavioural story and I'm going on about how interesting and unexpected it is. Suddenly one of them says, "I just remembered back when I was a resident. I was doing a surgical transplant rotation. There was an older surgeon who said "if you ever get organs from a motorcycle accident death check the organs for Toxo. I don't know why but you find a lot of Toxo". People who die in motorcycle accidents seem to have high rates of Toxo.

What is the bottom line on this ? It depends if you want to overcome some of your inhibitions Toxo might be a very good thing to have in your system. Ever since we started studying Toxo in my lab every lab meeting we sit around speculating about which People in the lab are Toxo-infected and that might have something to do with one's level of recklessness.

Toxoplasma Gondii and US Military Bioweapons

Here's something terrifying and not surprising. A group who knows about Toxo and its effect on behaviour is the US Military. They're interested in Toxo. They're officially intrigued. I would think they would be intrigued studying a Parasite that makes mammals perhaps do things that everything in their fibre normally tells them not to because it's dangerous and ridiculous and stupid and don't do it. Suddenly with this Parasite on board the mammal is a little bit more likely to go and do it. They are aware of Toxo.

There are two groups collaborating in Toxo research. One is led by Joanne Webster at Imperial College London. The other is Glenn McConkey at University of Leeds. We're doing the neurobiology end of it.

There's a long-standing literature that absolutely shows there's a statistical link between Toxo infection and schizophrenia. It's not a big link but it's solidly there. Schizophrenics have higher than expected rates of having been infected with Toxo and not particularly the case for other related Parasites. Links between schizophrenia and mothers who had house cats during pregnancy. There's a whole literature on that. So where does this fit in?

Back to dopamine and the tyrosine hydroxylase gene that Toxo somehow ripped off from mammals which allows it to make more dopamine. Dopamine levels are too high in schizophrenia. That's the leading suggestion of what schizophrenia is about neurochemically. You take Toxo-infected rodents and their brains have elevated levels of dopamine. This came from Webster's group you take a rat who's been Toxo-infected and is now at the state where it would find cat urine to be attractive and you give it drugs that block dopamine reception the drugs that are used to treat schizophrenics and it stops being attracted to the cat urine. There is some schizophrenia connection here with this.

Any time Toxo is picked up in the media and this schizophrenia angle is brought in the irresistible angle is the generic crazy cat lady living in the apartment with 43 cats. That's an irresistible one in terms of Toxo psychiatric connection and cats. Robert Sapolsky is a Professor of Biological Sciences at Stanford University and of Neurology at Stanford's School of Medicine.

Candida Albicans Toxoplasma Gondii and The Porn Industry

Candida Albicans (yellow tongue) is known to stimulate sexual drive in Humans particularly in Women combine that with Toxoplasma Gondii that can stimulate schizophrenia and Multiple Personaliy Disorders or Dissasociative Identity Disorder where the Person may have many Personalities and no memory of any of them and you have a formula that is currently driving the Porn Industry.
Candida Albicans is a pre runner to many types of Cancer.

The Frequency That Turns Women On

Also add to that various Corporations spent many billions of dollars to find and found the frequency that turns Women on even to the point of orgasm and Governments have been broadcasting that frequency for years now that will have improved strength in broadcasting with 5G. These aspects may be what is driving Women sexually into a wet frenzy currently.

Infertile Foods Sterillised Foods

Males and Females are being sterillised by infertile foods for decades now and Wifi 2G 3G 4G and 5G causing sterillity as part of the New World Orders Zero Population Growth ZPG objectives of wiping out 95% of the Earth's Population for alien takeover groups the same groups promoting the Trans Humanist Agendas.

Documentary Film Maker Max Igan believes Everyone on Earth is now infected with Morgellon's and the People who have the wires erupting out of their body are the ones who their metabolism rejects this organism the rest who don't have assimilated Morgellons. That Morgellons is a part of the Trans Humanist Agenda. DNA is made up with 2 strands Morgellons is integral with making up the 3rd strand in our DNA for the Smart Dust and Nano Technology to make You digital for the Trans Humanist Agenda.

The Trans Humanist Agendas

The Trans Humanist Agendas and Smart Dust are best portrayed in the Movie Gamer where Humans are puppets in a Civilisation taken over by various Corporations using Smart Dust and Nano Technology to control Humans to do whatever the Corporations want. Whereas You currently by Chemtrails are being taken over by Smart Dust Nano Technology and various other techniques combined Dumbing Down Campaigns etc so that eventually Your Reality will turn into something resembling a Computer Game or simulation of Your life and when it eventually takes over You will not notice the difference to what You are seeing now and experiencing in Your life. This will enable the conspiring Corporations and alien Takeover Groups to Pillage all the Earth's Resources and You won't even know or care as You will be in a computer simulation of Reality.

Science Fiction You may say. No. Currently Scientifically achievable Science Fact. The Real Question is .. has it already happenned ?

Stargate Atlantis episodes The Game and ... portrayed the concept of Consciousness being Stored Digitally in a Virtual World. Many Stargate episodes are about Alien Takeover Groups alien reptillian Parasites and Foothold Situations occuring. In Dark Skies alien Parasites takeover Majestic at the end of the series.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) the following Parasitic Infections are common in the U.S.:

Chagas disease
trichomoniasis, or trich

The CDC is working to increase awareness of these diseases and to improve diagnostic testing.

The US Government Is Serious About Creating Mind Controlled Weapons

DARPA - the Department of Defense's research arm is paying scientists to invent ways to instantly read soldiers' minds using tools like genetic engineering of the human brain, nanotechnology and infrared beams. The end goal? Thought-controlled weapons, like swarms of drones that someone sends to the skies with a single thought or the ability to beam images from one brain to another.

This week DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) announced that six teams will receive funding under the Next Generation Nonsurgical Neurotechnology (N3) program. Participants are tasked with developing technology that will provide a two-way channel for rapid and seamless communication between the human brain and machines without requiring surgery.

"Imagine someone who's operating a drone or someone who might be analyzing a lot of data" said Jacob Robinson an assistant professor of bioengineering at Rice University who is leading one of the teams.

[DARPA's 10 Coolest Projects: From Humanoid Robots to Flying Cars]

The Government Is Serious About Creating Mind Controlled Weapons

"There's this latency where if I want to communicate with my machine, I have to send a signal from my brain to move my fingers or move my mouth to make a verbal command and this limits the speed at which I can interact with either a cyber system or physical system. So the thought is maybe we could improve that speed of interaction."

That could be crucial as smart machines and a tidal wave of data threaten to overwhelm Humans and could ultimately find applications in both military and civilian domains Robinson said.

Advancing Mind Control

While there have been breakthroughs in our ability to read and even write information to the brain these advances have generally relied on brain implants in patients allowing physicians to monitor conditions like epilepsy.

Brain surgery is too risky to justify such interfaces in able bodied People and current external brain monitoring approaches like electroencephalography (EEG) in which electrodes are attached directly to the scalp are too inaccurate. As such DARPA is trying to spur a breakthrough in noninvasive or minimally invasive brain-computer interfaces (BCIs).

The agency is interested in systems that can read and write to 16 independent locations in a chunk of brain the size of a pea with a lag of no more than 50 milliseconds within four years said Robinson who is under no illusion about the scale of the challenge.

Genetically tweaking human brains The Government Is Serious About Creating Mind-Controlled Weapons

"When you try to capture brain activity through the skull, it's hard to know where the signals are coming from and when and where the signals are being generated" he told Live Science. "So the big challenge is can we push the absolute limits of our resolution both in space and time ?"

Genetically Tweaking Human Brains

To do this Robinson's team plans to use viruses modified to deliver genetic material into cells called viral vectors to insert DNA into specific neurons that will make them produce two kinds of proteins. Flying Saucers to Mind Control: 22 Declassified Military & CIA Secrets

The first type of protein absorbs light when a neuron is firing which makes it possible to detect neural activity. An external headset would send out a beam of infrared light that can pass through the skull and into the brain. Detectors attached to the headset would then measure the tiny signal that is reflected from the brain tissue to create an image of the brain. Because of the protein the targeted areas will appear darker (absorbing light) when neurons are firing generating a read of brain activity that can be used to work out what the person is seeing hearing or trying to do.

The second protein tethers to magnetic nanoparticles so the neurons can be magnetically stimulated to fire when the headset generates a magnetic field. This could be used to stimulate neurons so as to induce an image or sound in the patient's mind. As a proof of concept the group plans to use the system to transmit images from' the visual cortex of one person to that of another.

"Being able to decode or encode sensory experiences is something we understand relatively well" Robinson said. "At the bleeding edge of science I think we are there if we had the technology to do it."

Talking To Drones

A group from the nonprofit research institute Battelle is taking on a more ambitious challenge. The group wants to let Humans control multiple drones using their thoughts alone while feedback about things like acceleration and position go directly to the brain.

"Joysticks and computer cursors are more or less one-way devices" said senior research scientist Gaurav Sharma who leads the team. "Now we're thinking of one person controlling multiple drones and it's two-way so if the drone is moving left you get a sensory signal back into your brain telling you that it's moving left."

The Government Is Serious About Creating Mind Controlled Weapons

The group's plan relies on specially designed nanoparticles with magnetic cores and piezoelectric outer shells that means the shells can convert mechanical energy to electrical and vice versa. The particles will be injected or nasally administered and magnetic fields will guide them to specific neurons.

When a specially designed headset applies a magnetic field to the targeted neurons the magnetic core will move and exert stress on the outer shell to generate an electrical impulse that makes the neuron fire. The process also works in reverse with electrical impulses from firing neurons converted into tiny magnetic fields that are picked up by detectors in the headset.

Translating that process into controlling drones won't be simple admits Sharma but he's relishing the challenge DARPA has laid out. "The brain is the final frontier in medical science" he said. "We understand so little of it which is what makes it very exciting to do research in this area."

Fortified Synthetic Organisms That Can Last Forever

US The Pentagons Mad Science Arm DARPA - an arm of the US Defense Department. Katie Drummond of reported the Pentagons mad science arm DARPA is looking to re write the laws of evolution to the US military's advantage by creating synthetic organisms that can last forever. The plan would assemble the latest bio tech knowledge to come up with living breathing creatures that are genetically engineered to produce the intended biological effect.

DARPA - wants the organisms to be fortified with molecules that bolster cell resistance to death so that these lab monsters can be programmed to live indefinately forever killing Humans.

The Really Big Lie Crumbles

Fourteen years ago when I was in the early stages of my coverage of Autism in the news I wrote a piece that was published on entitled The Really Big Lie About Autism.

This article referred to the universally promoted idea that all the kids with Autism everywhere were really nothing new. They’ve always been here; they were called something else or their condition went unrecognized by doctors and teachers.

Reporters routinely assured the public that while the rate of autism may seem to be on a nonstop upward path, it was merely the result of “better diagnosing” “greater awareness” and “ an expanded definition” of the disorder.

For years these excuses have been enough to dispel any real concern. I’ve seen them thousands of times in news reports over the past two decades and I’ve always wondered why no one asks the obvious: WHERE ARE THE ADULTS WITH AUTISM at rates even remotely close to what we’re seeing in children ? Most importantly why do the numbers never level out ? Why do they only trend upward ?

Back in 2006 when I first wrote about The Really Big Lie the official autism rate was one in every 166 children in the U.S. Things continued to get worse as the years went on as shown by statistics from the Centers for Disease Control: 2007: one in 150, 2009: one in 110, 2012: one in 88, 2014: one in 68, 2018: one in 59 (also in 2018: one in 40 according to a separate study published in JAMA).

Really alarming was the rate from New Jersey in the 2018 CDC announcement: in that state one in every 34 children has autism. New Jersey is credited with having a statewide registry of children with autism so their identification of the disorder is considered very accurate.

What if New Jersey’s autism rate is happening everywhere ? What if the national rate is really one in 34 children ? No one even considered that possibility anywhere in the news reports when the numbers were announced in 2018.

The End Of The Really Big Lie About Autism

Seriously it has to stop. How much better diagnosing can we afford ? When will we openly admit that something of recent origin has dramatically impacted nearly two generations of U.S. children ?

I’m seeing the end kind of. Here are three reports from the past couple of days. Two are from California one is from Minnesota.

We Can’t Keep Closing Our Eyes To These Numbers

On Feb 13 a news report from Brainerd Minnesota announced that 22% of the students there were getting Special Education Services there. (Minnesota’s state average is 16%.)

Statistics that I’ve compiled over the last couple of years reveal some other higher than average numbers in that state: Duluth 17% SPED, Austin 17.3% SPED, Red Wing 18% SPED, Minneapolis 18% SPED, Bemidji 20% SPED And remember the official U.S. percent for students receiving SPED services is 14

State and Local Numbers Keep Increasing

“Brainerd stayed consistent with 22% of students reported to receive special education services in 2018 as well. The district percentage has increased over the last five years though from 18.6% in 2015. The state average increased from 14.4% in 2015.”

A Big Part of This Is Autism

“In Brainerd students primarily fall into one of the following Disability Categories: Speech/Language, Learning Disability, Emotional/Behavioral, other Health Disabled, Autism Spectrum Disorder and Developmental Delay. The highest number of students — 360 — are considered to have Learning Disabilities with the next highest category being Developmental Delay at 318 followed by Autism Spectrum Disorder at 237. The Developmental Delay category had the highest increase from 2015 at 43%.”

And Developmental Delays and Autism at never before seen rates are predicted to continue in Brainerd. “Superintendent Laine Larson said she expects to see more increases in that category in the coming years as well so the district will keep that in mind moving forward.”

As implausible as it may sound the Special Education Assistant Director attributed the stunning numbers to “earlier detections of the disability and more referrals from doctors.” This absurd explanation makes doctors and educators look completely incompetent. How did they miss these kids in the past ? Why were their needs ignored ?

Move on to California as Disaster Unfolds

On Feb 3 an eye opening piece was published on the California education site Ed100 called Special Education Costs Flood School Budgets. It focused on state statistics.

“The rising costs of Special Education Services are overwhelming your school district budget. And we are talking Big Bucks. Nearly 800,000 students in California receive Special Education Services — about one in every eight students.”

Numbers Are Up

“The cost of providing Special Education Services in California has grown significantly over time. In 2017-18 the total cost was about $13 billion. According to the state Legislative Analyst Office this represented an increase of about 28 percent over a decade earlier adjusted for inflation. The percentage of students receiving Special Education Services jumped from 11 percent to 13 percent.”

A major reason costs are increasing is because there are more kids with Autism. “About two thirds of the cost increases reflect the growing number of students with severe disabilities especially Autism. According to the Legislative Analyst Report, ‘The share of students identified with Autism has increased from 1 in 600 students in 1997-98 to about 1 in 50 students in 2018-19.’”

We’re not told why there are more kids with Autism in California schools but their cost is undeniable. While the writer Carol Kocivar former President of the California State PTA was mostly concerned with the failure of the federal government to cover their share of the Cost of Educating Special Needs Students, her statistics don’t lie: there are more disabled students in California schools especially ones with AUTISM.

Then on Feb 16 the piece California must face reality: Autism cases are increasing was published by CalMatters really got to the point. It was written by Jill Escher a mother with two severely affected children with Autism. She’s affiliated with local and National Autism Groups.

Escher cited chilling statistics from her state: “In 1999 the state of California was in shock: baffling even the most seasoned of authorities Autism cases in the Developmental Services System had spiked from about 4,000 in 1987 to about 13,000 cases in 1998.”

That was nothing of course. Escher reported California now recognizes more than 122,000 Autism cases. She admitted that there’s no sign that this upward spike is leveling off. She also noted “We hear little about Autism data from our Public Health leaders or media.”

The Impact Of So Many Children With Autism Is Far Reaching

“Schools can’t keep up with ever growing demand. Emergency rooms and police departments are reeling from increasingly frequent crisis cases. Families are desperate for support and solutions.”

The future with tens of thousands of California children with Autism Aging out of school is scary. “As Autistic Students are aging out of school and into an Adult Services System woefully unprepared to meet their complex needs. Based on Department of Developmental Services data, the demand for Adult Services and Housing will likely grow five fold over the next 20 years from 28,000 Developmentally Disabled Autistic Adults over 21 today, quintupling to about 140,000 in 2040.”

Escher doesn’t believe Really Big Lie About Autism

Escher wrote “Though it has become fashionable to blame rising awareness or diagnostic shifts, those arguments are well past their expiration date.”

Noting that after 2003 the criteria for an autism diagnosis in California became more stringent she wrote that “the door for entry has been narrowing not widening. No it’s not ‘better awareness.’”

So something in the Environment is responsible for what’s happening to our children and we have to do something. This is the message from Jill Escher.

What’s really confounding is her blanket dismissal of the possibility that our unchecked unsafe liability free vaccine schedule is to blame.

Dramatic Increase in Autism

“While nobody fully understands what is behind the Dramatic Increase in Autism two things are clear: it’s not vaccines and it’s not a change in criteria.”

Escher’s reasons for rejecting vaccines are straight from the CDC’s playbook:

“And of course vaccines have nothing to do with Autism. Autism has its genesis in abnormal wiring up of the early brain starting well before birth. Aside from biological implausibility a multitude of epidemiological studies have found no link between vaccination and Autism. If anything vaccines protect against early life infection that can cause brain damage.

While putting her trust in the Science from officials in bed with the vaccine makers Escher fails to name any other possible Environmental Cause. If it’s not the vaccines what’s behind the Epidemic of Autism around the World ? If children are born with Autism how does she explain the many cases of dramatic regression where normally developing children suddenly lose learned skills and become Autistic ? Why isn’t she interested in the more than 80 claims of vaccine induced Autism that have been compensated by the Federal Government ?

Anne Dachel is Media Editor for Age of Autism.

Autism Is An Epidemic

Despite her denial of a link to vaccines Escher is sounding a Warning. Autism will bury us. Its march is relentless. We may celebrate it with blue lights and raise awareness with puzzle pieces but we’re going to have to live with reality that Autism Is An Epidemic. Unlike Epidemics in the past where victims either died or recovered This Disabled Population will live long and costly lives dependent on taxpayers who have had no interest in where they were all coming from.

(Source:; February 19, 2020;

Are Vaccinnes The Cause Of Autism and Not The Savior As Generally Presented ?

Of course Vaccinnes and Pertusis are The Cause Of Autism that's why it is the vehicle used by the Barbarian Medical Establishment to make $money. To think the Barbarian Medical Establishment and Vaccinnes are The Savior You would have to be a bit Autistic and You probably are due to vaccination Campaigns for hundreds of years now. To believe in The Barbarian Medical Establishment as The Savior You have to be a bit one eyed because that's the way it is observed through one eye while ignoring and outlawing everything else. ie: all the Natural Preventative Medicine Groups Established for ..

The Concept of Vaccinnes

Where the concept of vaccinnes came from is best portrayed in a movie the 13 Warrior where everyone spits into a common bowl of water and wash their face in it.

The List Of Toxic Ingredients In A Vaccinne

Vaccine Serums - contain highly toxic additives mercury squaline aluminium formaldehyde live cancer viruses msg leading to autism permanent nerve degenerative diseases and many other horrific health disorders and side effects condonned by US govt. AMA FDA WHO etc.

When observing the list of toxic ingredients in a vaccinne it's quite obvious that injecting a mixture of toxic ingredients into someone cannot be Good for the Human Organism to exist in a Healthy state.

Vaccinnes Are A Theory

Vaccinnes are Only a theory. Vaccination theory is not Proven at this time in History. This is because with The Barbarian Medical Establishment statistics are usually dodgy and not really reliable or accurate and they don't have backstudies unless warranted so much so that if You can get accurate back studies from and by The Barbarian Medical Establishment on vaccinnes You may find that the vaccinne might have worked for a while but then it eventually killed that victim of The Barbarian Medical Establishment.

PERTUSSIS Vaccination and Encephalitis - by Greg Wilson

The Consequence Of Childhood Vaccinations - can only be called a Pollution of Our Internal Environment similar to the Pollution of The External Environment we are only too lamentably familiar.

1990: The Hubris of Physicians Resembles That of The Oil and Chemical Companies - who have also thought they could violate nature without paying a price.

Greek Dramatists Knew Nature - cannot be challenged in this way without exacting retribution.

The Retribution - has been prompt and devastating even though not yet generally acknowledged. Coulter 1990 p260

This Paper Reviews The History of Post Vaccine Reactions - with emphasis on the pertussis whooping cough vaccine.

The Question - whether common and severe reactions involve The Central Nervous System ?

Post Vaccinal Encephalitis - is considered.

The Subject Of Encephalitis Is Explored - and Evidence is Suggestive of a Connection Between Common Occurrences of post vaccinal encephalitis and recent increases in immunologic and neurologic disorders is examined.

Introduction - the benefits of childhood immunisation are usually seen as self evident and parents are considered to be responsible citizens for having their children protected against a range of potentially fatal diseases.

My partner and I accepted this view. However following our daughter's reaction to her third triple antigen diphtheria pertussis tetanus. My partner after reading an article questioned vaccination decided against further shots. Having little knowledge of the subject and with the reaction in mind I did not disagree. Following the arrival of our second daughter I felt a responsible thing for me to do would be to examine the subject for myself.

Given the complex nature of our technical society the citizen often finds it necessary to defer on scientific matters to professional experts who know better. The issue of vaccination is one such matter and to question a procedure that has such overwhelming professional and public endorsement is not encouraged. As the matter concerned my children's health I felt I had an interest in researching the subject. Since I began I have collected and studied information from all sides of the vaccination debate and spoken to doctors and other parents seeking their experience and knowledge.

Admittedly I began this inquiry with a degree of skepticism toward the medical establishment. Their stand on vaccines seemed a touch overzealous in contrast with our experience. I was still unprepared when I found a historical controversy rarely mentioned in today's society. To my concern I found many unanswered questions surrounding the use of childhood vaccines and was surprised to learn that there were crucial areas of Study Relating to The Risks of Vaccination appeared to have been neglected or even forgotten. In this paper I wish to contribute to the vaccination debate from the point of view of an informed parent and examine two of these areas The Study of Vaccine Reactions and The Study of Encephalitis.

The Vaccination Controversy

Vaccine Reactions - the risks associated with vaccination are thought to be insignificant when compared to the risks of disease.

Whether This View Is Correct - or incorrect is of course The Fundamental Question at Issue in The Vaccination Controversy.

This Question Is Often Portrayed As An Issue Of Science - verses anecdote.

The Science Consists Of A Body Of Medical Literature - we are told finds that vaccines have overwhelming benefits with little risk.

The Anecdotal Evidence Comes From Parents Who Complain - that death or injury to their child was caused by vaccination.

The Scientific Viewpoint Is That The Anecdotal Evidence - is due to coincidence and that the medical literature proves conclusively that this is so.

This Portrayal Of The Controversy As A Question Of Science - verses anecdote is however only a partial view.

The Historical Medical and Scientific Literature Contains Many Warnings - and dissenting opinions on the value of vaccination.

Although These Have Always Been In The Minority - they do demonstrate that the issue has been controversial from a scientific viewpoint as well as from the conflicting anecdotal evidence.

Some Of These Warnings Relate To A Lack Of Knowledge Concerning Vaccine Reactions - and it is this area I wish to first examine Of all vaccines the wholecell pertussis vaccine has been and remains the most contentious.

It Is On This Vaccine I - wish to focus.

Similar Complications May Also Occur - with other vaccines as we shall see less frequently.

The Pertussis Vaccine - many people are aware that a severe case of whooping cough may result in a case of encephalitis inflammation of the brain with consequent brain damage or death.

A Smaller Number Believe - that rarely the vaccine given to prevent whooping cough may also cause encephalitis with consequent brain damage or death.

The Medical Position On The Pertussis Vaccine's Encephalopathic Abilities - has changed in recent years from an acknowledgment of those abilities to a view that such an association may possibly be unwarranted.

To Properly Examine These Risks - and Changing Views an Historical Overview is Essential.

It Is Also Necessary To Check The Basis For Some Commonly Held Assumptions - and to appreciate the evolution of particular lines of research.


1920: Faroe Islanders Madsen In His Report of Trials of The Vaccine on Faroe Islanders - during the 1920s was the first to call attention to potential dangers when he mentioned the deaths of two infants following their vaccinations. Up until around the last two decades this report was often cited in introductions on papers dealing with side effects of the pertussis vaccine. Madsen's was an isolated case during the 1930s it wasn't until the 1940s when the vaccine was being introduced on a mass scale that further accounts of vaccine damage began coming in.

1946: Werne and Garrow - in 1946 reported fatal anaphylactic shock in ten month old identical twins following their second diphtheria / pertussis injections. Following their first injections one month before one twin vomited had a temperature of 101 F. and cried considerably. Following their second injections both infants cried considerably on reaching home they vomited and consumed excessive amounts of water They then fell asleep and when next noticed by their parents appeared lifeless. The parents explained that they regarded these symptoms as expected effects of the vaccination and therefore did not summon medical aid until 5:30 am. One twin was pronounced dead on arrival at hospital and the other around four hours later. The authors mentioned the inadequacy of present knowledge of the mechanism in deaths following injections and stated. The possibility of delayed reaction should be considered whenever foreign protein is administered.

1948: Byers and Moll From Harvard Medical School - and the Infant's and Children's Hospitals. Boston published a study that detailed 15 cases of brain damage resulting from the vaccine.

Their Conclusion Stated In Common With - many other biologic materials used parenterally an important risk of encephalopathy attends the use of prophylactic pertussis vaccine.

The Mechanism - whereby the encephalopathy is produced is not elucidated by the present study.

The Universal Use - of such vaccine is warranted only if it can be shown to be effective in preventing encephalopathy or death from pertussis itself in large groups of children.

If Avoidance of The Inconvenience - of the average attack of pertussis is all that is expected the risk seems considerable.

Efforts To Diminish The Hazard By Modification of The Vaccine - or new methods of administration seem indicated.

Although This Study Alerted The Medical World To The Dangers Of The Vaccine - the area of vaccine reactions and particularly the mechanisms involved received little attention.

1949: Toomey 1949 Found The Byers and Moll Report Disturbing - and sent questionnaires to a number of pediatricians. He asked Did the patients have convulsions after vaccination ?

Toomey Restricted His Inquiry To This One Symptom of CNS Central Nervous System Involvement - as there may be a misunderstanding as to what constitutes an encephalopathy but everyone can recognise a convulsion. Although many of the physicians consulted reported no convulsions Toomey received at least 38 well authenticated cases. Of these two died and twelve showed irreversible changes.

1948: June Toomey - reported his findings to the Ninety Seventh Annual Session of the American Medical Association in June 1948. Sauer noted that neurological complications following injections were similar to those sometimes encountered after a case of pertussis. In isolated cases a customary prophylactic dose of pertussis vaccine seems to elicit a chain of untoward central nervous system reactions fever convulsions and in some instances irreversible pathologic changes in the brain. These cardinal findings resemble those occasionally encountered in cases of severe whooping cough. Sauer proposed unsuccessfully it seems that a committee be appointed to study the subject of convulsions and encephalopathy following the administration of any type of antigen. Toomey 1948

1949: Globus and Kohn - reported a further two cases of encephalopathy one fatal following administration of the pertussis vaccine. The authors wrote that the cause of these reactions is still undetermined although they noted that post mortem investigation on the fatal case revealed anatomic changes suggest the probability that an allergic form of encephalopathy was caused by an antigen antibody reaction 1949

1957: England Anderson and Morris - made the second report of a case from England where mass vaccination for pertussis began in 1957. They summarised the literature to date on pertussis vaccine reactions and in their summary wrote on contra indications to the vaccine. The pathogenesis is unknown in view of the reports of serious neurological complications it is suggested that pertussis vaccination should not be done if there is a history of convulsions in the child or the family if there is any untoward reaction to the first injection further vaccination should be abandoned.

1951: JJ Miller - considered the nature and future of vaccine reactions. How may the rare occurrence of crippling or fatal reactions be avoided ? If toxicity of vaccine has been an important factor the outlook is encouraging.

The Division of Biologic Control of The National Institutes of Health - has recently required that all vaccine be tested for toxicity before release. If on the other hand the majority of severe reactions with or without involvement of The Central Nervous System have been on an allergic basis the outlook is not so bright.

Allergic Reactions - to all types of vaccines toxoids and serums have occurred and will continue to occur. They may be due to individual idiosyncrasy to the preservatives employed or simply to the foreign protein present.

1953: Sutherland - wrote the pathogenesis of encephalopathy following anti pertussis inoculation is uncertain. A constitutional tendency or an individual susceptibility is sometimes postulated. This view is not at variance with the widely held belief that an allergic or pathergic state of the nervous system is responsible. Such a state may be an expression of previous specific or non-specific sensitization. Sutherland also considered other possibilities and noted that It is also conceivable that injection of an antigen might activate a previously latent neurotropic virus. He believed that the case he reported showed signs that were compatible with an allergic background.

1954: A Major Study By HG Miller and JB Stanton - commented on the unclear nature of vaccine reactions. They wrote that the study of neurological complications lie in a neglected borderland between the fields of neurology preventive medicine and paediatrics and have been the subject of many isolated case reports but of little systematic study. Miller and Stanton added weight to an allergic mechanism behind vaccine reactions. They considered at length the pathogenesis of reactions and suggested it to be anaphylactic hypersensitivity.

1955: Low Performed Electroencephalographic Studies - on infants following their vaccinations for whooping cough. He found abnormal tracings occurring without an otherwise marked reaction to the vaccine. Low wrote This study shows that mild but possibly significant cerebral reactions occur in addition to the reported very severe neurological changes.

Studies Such As Low's - that closely examine individual children are extremely rare in the study of vaccine reactions and virtually non existent in today's literature. Today's preference is for statistical analyses of large study groups. These are usually case / control studies that compare vaccinated children with other vaccinated children.

Controversy In The UK

1956: Miller Stanton and Gibbons - stated that the pathology of pertussis vaccine encephalitis is confusing.

1958: Berg Surveyed The Literature - and found records of 107 cases of neurological complications following pertussis immunization. These included the 15 cases from Byers and Moll 1948 and the 38 cases from Toomey 1949. Berg reported a further case a male child who until his first diphtheria pertussis injection at 8 months had shown normal progress and had had no illnesses. The night following his injection the child was whimpering and unsettled an unusual feature for him and early the next morning was drowsy hypotonic with high temperature. The following morning within 48 hours of the injection convulsions began. The child was left with severe mental retardation and continuing fits.

1958: Berg Considered The Mechanisms - behind reactions. He wrote Various hypotheses to account for the complications discussed have been advanced from time to time but each is open to objection and there is still no unanimity of opinion. He listed the following as suggested causes a sensitization phenomenon a specific toxin or toxins some constitutional predisposition in affected children pyrogens contaminating vaccines and accidental intravenous injection of vaccine. Berg 1958

1960: Sweden Stockholm Justus Strom - head of the Hospital for Infectious Diseases Stockholm became the first voice to call for a re-examination of the use of the pertussis vaccine. Strom had been monitoring the pertussis vaccination program in Sweden wrote In Sweden as in several other countries neurological complications after pertussis triple vaccination have been observed. A nation wide investigation showed that 36 cases of such complications occurred in about 215000 vaccinated children 1 in 6000 during 1955-8. Most of these consisted of convulsions coma or collapse and the children were restored to health there were four deaths two were sudden and nine cases indicative of encephalopathies with severe lesions 1 in 17000.

An Investigation - of the incidence of neurological complications after pertussis showed this was not so high as after vaccination. The increasingly mild nature of whooping cough and the very low mortality in this disease in Sweden makes it questionable whether universal vaccination against It is justified. Strom 1960

1960: Strom Argued Against The Line - that the affected children would have been damaged by whooping cough anyway. It may be assumed that the neurological complications after whooping cough and after vaccination are provoked by the same agent so that whether or not a reaction occurs might depend on the individual disposition. This assumption might encourage one to adopt the view that the child who reacts so powerfully to the vaccine would be the child who would also have developed neurological symptoms in whooping-cough. This is to say the least a dangerous line of thought for it is unlikely that the sudden administration of a large dose of vaccine can be compared with the course of the natural infection an infection that might in some cases have been mild. Strom 1960

1960: Strom's Findings Were Criticized - on the grounds that he did not take into account the likelihood of coincidental encephalopathies. This occurs when the vaccine is thought not to be responsible as the encephalopathy following the vaccination may have occurred anyway. The occurrence of signs originating from The Central Nervous System soon after the injection of a vaccine may be explained in several ways. There may be a true causal relationship the matter may also be due to pure coincidence since it is well known that a considerable number of infants aged 3 to 6 months show neurological signs without ever having been immunized. Malmgren 1960

1967: Strom Later Published Further Findings - that showed the more severe reactions leading to permanent injury to have decreased since his first study. Among 516276 triple vaccinated children in Sweden from 1959 to 1965 neurological reactions to the vaccination occurred in 167 cases destructive encephalopathy 3 convulsions 80 hypsarrhythmia 4 shock 54 uncontrollable screaming 24 serous meningitis 2 Serous meningitis was also found in three out of nine examined cases of convulsions. Strom believed the endotoxin to be the factor responsible for the cerebral reactions. The fact that most reactions occur after the first injection is against an allergic origin. Certain observations show a quicker and more severe effect of subsequent injections. Strom noted an individual predisposition to be of some significance. Strom 1967

In Over Thirty Years Since The Pertussis Vaccine - was first reported to cause potentially destructive reactions the mechanisms involved in these reactions whether of an allergic hypersensitive or toxic origin appear to be unknown. Despite this confusion the predominant view was that mass vaccination programs were of such value that they should be vigorously encouraged.

The Seventies Controversy In The UK

1974: Neurologist John Wilson - studied 36 cases of brain damage resulting from the vaccine seen over a period of eleven years at The Hospital for Sick Children London. Of the 36 children four recovered completely and two died. Twenty two were retarded to a moderate or severe degree and also suffered from epilepsy four suffered from uncomplicated mental subnormality three from epilepsy only and one from persistent hemiparesis.

Hemiparesis - is paralysis affecting one side of the body Wilson considered the possibility of coincidental encephalopathies and wrote We do not think that the majority of cases we report here represent a chance association because of the clustering of illnesses in the 7 days after inoculation and particularly in the first 24 hours.

1974: This Clustering Is Outstanding In The Records of The Department of Neurology - where there has been a sustained attempt to document both the date of onset of all neurological illness and also the timing of inoculations. Kulenkampff 1974

1948: Like The Byers and Moll 1948 - study. Wilson's report again highlighted the potential for catastrophic consequences from the pertussis vaccine.

Given That These Neurological Complications Were So Little Understood - it is not surprising that major differences of opinion arose over the use of the vaccine.

Some Medical Professionals Took The Line - that as the benefits of vaccination are believed to be so overwhelming then a lack of understanding on risks may be overlooked.

1974: In Considering The Value - of whooping cough vaccine in the U.K. where the incidence of the disease is now extremely low it is probable that the risks from stopping routine vaccination would be considerable.

Whooping Cough Vaccine - like other vaccines must carry some risk whereas the potential dangers of abandoning vaccination are clear those from using the vaccine as a routine procedure have not been adequately assessed. Vaccination against whooping cough should not be discouraged until there is valid evidence that the risk from the vaccine outweighs the risk from the disease. Miller 1974

1976: Unfortunately Not All Medical Professionals - believe the benefits are as Great as commonly believed. It is questionable whether mass immunisation with pertussis vaccine can be given credit for the observed reduction in overall incidence in whooping cough Bassili and Stewart 1976. If the benefits are not clear then obviously one should take a more cautious approach to both known and unknown risks associated with the vaccine. Since there is some doubt about the frequency of adverse reactions and an absence of firm data about this also it is questionable whether there are adequate grounds for continuing recommendations for mass immunisation in all parts of the U.K.. Bassili and Stewart 1976

The National Childhood Encephalopathy Study

1977: UK Professor Gordon Stewart - published his controversial study Vaccination Against Whooping Cough Efficacy versus Risks. Stewart extended previous evidence Bassili and Stewart 1976 regarding the ineffectiveness of the vaccine and called into question current vaccination policies. One hundred and sixty cases of adverse reactions and neurotoxicity following vaccinations were studied. Stewart wrote It seems likely that most adverse reactions are unreported that many are overlooked. The claim by official bodies t the risks of whooping cough exceed those of vaccination is questionable at least in the UK. Stewart 1977

The National Childhood Encephalopathy Study NCES

1981: Wilson's and Stewart's Studies - along with media coverage of the controversy that included reports of vaccine damaged children led to a loss of public confidence in the vaccine. The national uptake of pertussis immunisation dropped from over 80% in 1974 to 31% in 1978 Miller 1981 The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation requested further studies on the safety of the pertussis vaccine The best known of these was the National Childhood Encephalopathy Study NCES Miller 1981. Since it was published a significant amount of the medical debate about the safety of the pertussis vaccine has been based around this one study.

The NCES was what is known as a case/control study. It compared vaccinated brain damaged children with vaccinated normal children and by statistical methods attempted to find how many cases of damage may have been attributable to the vaccine. The cases were specified serious acute neurological illnesses which included those possibly caused by pertussis immunisation admitted to hospital over a three year time period. Cases were obtained by asking consultant pediatricians infectious disease specialists and neurosurgeons to voluntarily notify the study of any cases fitting the specification. Two control children matched for sex age and area of residence were selected for each case. The first 1000 cases notified were analysed. Thirty five of the notified children 3.5% had received pertussis antigen within seven days before becoming ill compared with thirty-four 1.7% of 1955 control children within a comparable seven day period. The study stated A significant association was shown between serious neurological illness and pertussis vaccine though cases were few and most children recovered completely. Applying their figures to the overall population the NCES derived a risk figure of permanent neurological damage to be 1 in 310000 injections but cautioned that their figure could not be interpreted as a precise measure Miller 1981.

1981: As In Previous Studies The Actual Mechanisms - involved received little consideration from the NCES. The mechanism for pertussis vaccine associated neurological disease remains obscure it may either be caused by a direct neurotoxic effect or be mediated indirectly via immune mechanisms. Miller 1981

1991: The Australian National Health and Medical Research Council - based vaccination recommendations on the NCES figure and have further stated that the real risk is very much less than the figure given by the NCES NH&MRC 1991 p31.

1981: Another Of The Studies Undertaken By The Meade Panel - that included Stewart and Wilson handled material notified largely by the Association of Parents of Vaccine Damaged Children and calculated the risk at about 1 in 53000 children. The Lancet 1981 p1113 Stewart and Wilson were highly critical of the NCES and listed important defects that made it likely that it underestimated the frequency of significant reactions. Cases handled by clinics general practitioners and casualty departments without early admission to hospital were excluded as were those with initial illnesses lasting less than 30 minutes. Prospective investigation of vaccinated children or of reactions reported independently by doctors to the Committee on Safety of Medicines were excluded. Stewart and Wilson 1981

1981: Stewart and Wilson - believed the number of children paid compensation under a recently established scheme for vaccine damaged children to be significant. Noting the imprecise nature of their own study and that of the NCES they wrote An independent estimate of the risk of severe brain damage 80% disability is relevant and available in the awards made by medical panels advising the Government's vaccine damage payments scheme. Last year there were 435 awards to children immunised with pertussis containing vaccines about three times the number for all other vaccines indicating a risk over the period 1958-1978 in the order of 1: 30000 with a number of cases yet to be settled. Stewart and Wilson pointed out lesser degrees of brain damage resulting from convulsions and other sequelae of immunizations should not be discounted Stewart and Wilson 1981

Previously Only 366 Claims - had been accepted out of 2525 applications to the compensation scheme mentioned by Stewart and Wilson. The Lancet 1979 p1145 Given that the number of parents who believed their child to be vaccine damaged was approximately six times the number who actually received compensation it is possible that Stewart and Wilson's figure of 1: 30000 may be an underestimation of the risk. How does one define 80% disability what of these lesser degrees mentioned by Stewart and Wilson ? NCES figure of one in 310000 injections has been the figure widely circulated by the medical establishment despite existence of compensation payments to parents of brain damaged children clearly demonstrating a far higher risk.

The Eighties Controversy In The US

1981: The United States - around the same time as the NCES and Meade Panel reports a study Cody 1981 by the University of California at Los Angeles UCLA and the Food and Drug Administration looked at common reactions. Until this time rates of reactions due to currently licensed pertussis vaccines had not been accurately determined. The study found in 784 DT and 15.752 DTP immunizations given to children 0 to 6 years of age who were prospectively studied for reactions occurring within 48 hours following immunization minor reactions were significantly more frequent following DTP vaccine. The study found the ratio of reaction rates for DPT with DT immunizations as follows fever 31.5% /14.9% drowsiness 31.5% /14.9% fretfulness 53.4% / 22.6% vomiting 6.2% / 2.6% anorexia 20.9% / 7.0% persistent crying 3.1% / 0.7%.

As In Other Studies There Was No Long Term - follow up to find whether these minor reactions could be responsible for more subtle cases of neurological changes. The study was therefore able to state No evidence of encephalopathy or permanent brain damage was seen in any vaccine recipients. Cody 1981 Under the heading Nature of Reactions. The study describes the symptoms of reactions but fails to discuss possible causes for these reactions. The number of children participating in the study was not given and has since become a point of contention. Of these unknown number of children nine developed convulsions and nine developed hypotonic hyporesponsive episodes collapse shock like state.

Pertussis Vaccine Encephalopathy The Myth

1985: Diphtheria Aetanus Shots - also cause reactions although less frequently. During the early eighties following firstly a televised report on the risks of pertussis vaccine by Lea Thompson and then further reports of vaccine damage in the media the controversy again spilled into the public arena. A lobby group called Dissatisfied Parents Together DPT was formed in Washington DC. A co founder of this group Barbara Loe Fisher collaborated with medical historian Harris Coulter to write a critique of the triple antigen vaccine. Their book DPT A Shot in the Dark was first published in 1985 and has become well known in the global vaccination controversy.

1988: Because Of The Publicity Surrounding The Vaccine Parents - were now aware of a possible relationship between the vaccine and subsequent death or brain damage. By the mid eighties over 200 DPT suits a year were being filed against vaccine manufacturers in the United States. The national immunization program was threatened from vaccine liability leading to exorbitant costs or loss of supply of vaccines. In response to this crisis a government scheme was established to pay compensation to parents of brain damaged children Smith 1988.

1988: The American Academy of Pediatrics - commissioned a Task Force to examine the problem of the controversy relating to pertussis vaccine reactions and effectiveness. The Task Force's lengthy report is a most interesting document. The report reviewed literature regarding brain damage from the vaccine and noted. By 1979 there were more than 1000 individual cases of serious neurologic reactions following pertussis imunization reported in the literature p962. The authors of this report then incredibly attempted to rewrite medical history and argue against the existence of a pertussis vaccine encephalopathy. The argument that these reactions occur coincidentally with vaccination was applied to the extreme. Of the over 1.000 cases in the literature the authors stated that it is possible that none were specifically due to the vaccination. Cherry l 1988 p962

The Report Did Concede The Lack of Research - into the biological effects of the vaccine. The report stated Although it is clear that the injection of killed pertussis organisms cause many biologic and immunologic effects in humans few adequate studies have been performed. Cherry 1988 p 939

1990: A Study By Griffin Reported The Results - of a study of 38 171 children in Tennessee. Details of children were obtained from a computerized record system. Events that resulted in a Medicaid reimbursement for a medical encounter and matched various diagnostic criteria were studied. The study concluded that serious neurological events are rarely if ever caused by DTP immunization.

1990: The Journal of The American Medical Association - that Griffin's study was published vaccine specialist James Cherry wrote an editorial titled Pertussis Vaccine Encephalopathy: It Is Time to Recognize It as the Myth That It Is. Cherry from the UCLA. was an author of the UCLA / FDA study the Task Force Report and numerous other studies on vaccines. Cherry wrote Historically it is not surprising that physicians tended to blame pertussis immunization for severe neurological events and deaths. First of all when pertussis immunization was undertaken we already had vaccines and antitoxins smallpox and rabies vaccines and tetanus antitoxin that caused encephalitis anaphylaxis and immunologic neurological illness. Reactions were noted in temporal association with early attempts at pertussis immunization. The initial vaccines were not standardized and it is likely that some of the initial reactions were the result of excess endotoxin other vaccine ingredients or immunization methods. Cherry argued against cause and effect. Citing Griffin's study and other recent studies that show little or no adverse consequences he wrote. It is clear from the studies reviewed above that the major problem has been the failure of observers to separate sequences from consequences. The two are not synonymous. Cherry noted the problem of the recent controversy regarding the vaccine. Unfortunately because of the sensationalistic media the organization of a group of parents who attribute their children's illnesses and deaths to pertussis vaccine and the unique destructive force of personal injury lawyers we now have a national problem that shouldn't be.

Somehow This Seems A Different Reality - from that of parents who are convinced their children were damaged by vaccines. Cherry's line also ignores the historical account and a significant difference of opinion amongst medical professionals.

1990: Stewart Wrote - soon after Cherry's editorial This long usage of the pertussis vaccine does not deny the fact that some recipients display intolerance after an injection and that a further injection is liable to be followed by similar or worse signs. These incidents might be discounted if they had come only from parents there are many independent observations from doctors who have witnessed convulsions status epilepticus screaming fits collapses and mental disturbances after injections in previously well infants. Stewart 1990

Certainly There Has Been No Doubt - in the minds of many researchers as to the existence of a pertussis vaccine encephalopathy. Occurrence of similar symptoms after subsequent injections as Stewart mentioned the occurrence in twins following their injections Werne and Garrow 1946 Kulenkampff 1974 the occurrence in older children in whom coincidental febrile convulsions or other coincidental neurological illnesses are less likely the mention in the literature of a clustering of illnesses following vaccination the existence of associations of parents of vaccine damaged children and compensation schemes in the UK the US and other countries must surely indicate brain damage to be a possible consequence of pertussis vaccination.

That The Pertussis Vaccine Encephalopathy - is a myth. has now become the first line of defense of the medical establishment. This approach effectively negates the need for more detailed study of the mechanisms of vaccine reactions. Severe reactions can be considered nonexistent and lesser reactions as no long term consequences have been studied and there is no connection with a severe encephalopathy because it doesn't exist can be disregarded except for the discomfort of the initial symptoms.

The Nineties The Controversy Continues

1990: Medical Historian Harris Coulter - in 1990 published his second book on vaccination Vaccination Social Violence and Criminality The Medical Assault on the American Brain. This controversial and disturbing book will be discussed in more detail below. Despite the many serious questions now surrounding the pertussis vaccine health authorities in the west continued to press ahead with it's promotion. Studies that were hailed as confirming the safety of the vaccine were now large scale statistical analyses with few or no case studies undertaken to look into reactions.

1991: A Report By The United States Institute of Medicine - as part of a review of adverse consequences of vaccines under the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act. commented on the limitations of contemporary studies. The report stated In the course of its review the committee encountered many gaps and limitations in knowledge bearing directly and indirectly on the safety of vaccines. These include inadequate understanding of the biologic mechanisms underlying adverse events following natural infection or immunization insufficient or inconsistent information from case reports and case series inadequate size or length of follow up of many population based epidemiological studies The committee found few experimental studies published in relation to the number of epidemiological studies published.

Vaccine Reaction Symptoms

1991: If Research Capacity and Accomplishment - in these areas are not improved future reviews of vaccine safety will be similarly handicapped. IOM 1991 p8

In Summary The IOM Report Found - that the evidence is consistent with a causal relation between DPT vaccine and acute encephalopathy and shock and unusual shock like state that the evidence indicates a causal relation between DPT vaccine and anaphylaxis between the pertussis component of DPT vaccine and protracted inconsolable crying.

These Findings and Gaps In Knowledge - were not enough to raise doubts on the wisdom of mass vaccination. The first words of the executive summary of the report indicates the tone of the report Next to clean water no single intervention has had so profound an effect on reducing mortality from childhood diseases as has the widespread introduction of vaccines. IOM 1991 p1 This is not a unanimous view and unfortunately the gaps and limitations in knowledge mentioned by the IOM report seem to be with us still.

1993: Miller Published - a ten year follow up study to the NCES. Over 80% of cases and controls were traced As the cases were comprised of a specific group of children with a severe neurological illness not necessarily associated with vaccination the follow up study is of more benefit in evaluating the long term consequences of a severe neurological illness than in deriving any further relative risk ratios for vaccination.

However On The Basis - of this follow up study the United States Institute of Medicine commissioned a further evaluation This report gave some support to the possibility of the pertussis vaccine encephalopathy myth discussed above.

1994: Because The NCES - did not and probably could not rule out the possibility that only children with underlying brain or metabolic abnormalities react to stimuli such as DPT with acute neurological illness and no other studies establish or rule out such a possibility the committee concludes that the evidence is insufficient to indicate whether or not DPT increases the overall risk in children of chronic nervous dysfunction. IOM 1994 p15

As These Underlying Abnormalities - would themselves eventually have led to chronic nervous system dysfunction IOM 1994 p14 the report would have us believe that the vaccine itself may not be responsible for any cases of neurological dysfunction.

1994: Gale Published The Results - of a population based case control study that looked at cases of complex febrile seizures seizures without fever infantile spasms and acute encephalitis encephalopathy in a population of 218.000 children. This study used the basic NCES design and was the largest US study to date on serious acute neurological illness after vaccination. Records of 3876 subjects were reviewed for inclusion as cases. Of these 559 children 14.4% were selected by the diagnostic advisory panel. The study found that their findings were consistent with several other relatively large controlled studies that found no evidence of an association between DTP vaccine administration and onset of serious acute neurological illness.

It Is Significant That With The Literature On Vaccination Reactions - being so preoccupied with severe reactions the possible consequences of common reactions are overlooked. Studies such as the NCES do not address the possibility of long term damage from reactions other than those that fulfill their case definition.

1994: The Institute of Medicine Report 1994 - noted The NCES does provide data on one special or limited case of a possible relation between DPT and chronic nervous system dysfunction situations in a serious acute neurological illness follows DPT vaccine within 7 days.

There Is No Evidence To Suggest - whether children who receive DPT and do not experience a serious acute neurological illness are at increased risk for long term dysfunction. IOM 1994 p13 A closer look at the knowledge base of common vaccine reactions reveals shortcomings.

1993: Triple Antigen Package - insert in Australia lists a variety of possible symptoms following administration of the vaccine. Mild to moderate fever accompanied by irritability or malaise may occur within several hours of administration and persist for one or two days. A severe constitutional reaction may occasionally follow an injection of Triple Antigen persistent screaming with or without vomiting shock and collapse have been known to occur on rare occasions the symptoms commencing about one to four hours after the vaccination and subsiding in a few hours. Convulsions are said to occur in about 0.1% of cases it is difficult to relate this entirely to the vaccine. Encephalopathy is an exceedingly rare sequel of pertussis immunization.

A Causal Relationship Has Been Reported - but this conclusion has been disputed. CSL 1993

1933: Madsen - in his historical report of the first recorded deaths from the vaccine noted mild reactions some of my colleagues have told me that they have seen considerable malaise following the vaccination. Madsen's comment was not followed up and it appears the early workers with vaccines should maybe have put more thought into considering the nature of reactions. Subsequent inquiry appears to have maintained a dismissive approach to common reactions.

1985: Coulter and Fisher - investigated typical reactions to DPT vaccination. Reactions include high fever excessive sleepiness otitis diarrhea and other gastro intestinal symptoms vomiting cough high pitched screaming persistent crying collapse fainting shock seizures convulsions infantile spasms loss of muscle control headaches breathing difficulties and allergies.

1990: Coulter Stated These Manifestations - of a vaccination reaction are identical to the symptoms of acute encephalitis from any other cause. 1990 p103

1988: The Task Force Report - noted that there is a surprising lack of specific information related to the cause of both common and severe vaccine reactions. Cherry 1988 p967 The report also noted that The causes of persistent crying and hypotonic hyporesponsive episodes collapse shock like state are unknown. p967 Despite this lack of information and unknowns the report states that the benefits of pertussis immunization clearly outweigh the risks. Cherry 1988 p976

The Contemporary Medical Literature on Vaccines - does not acknowledge the strong possibility that common vaccine reactions involve The Central Nervous System.

1993: SIDS Researcher Writer and Leading Australian Campaigner - on vaccines Dr Viera Scheibner has written on the approach taken by the medical establishment. Quite obvious signs of encephalitis like drowsiness excessive omnolence irritability screaming with pain and/or uncontrollable movements and fits are described as events on their own as if they were not clinical signs of encephalitis or encephalopathy/ Scheibner 1993 p258

1996: Sweden - a recent study from Sweden trialled acellular and whole cell pertussis vaccines. It found that the acellular vaccines were much less likely to cause reactions than the whole cell vaccine. Rates of general symptoms to the whole cell vaccine after any of three injections were as follows Persistent crying greater than 1 hr 20.1% unusual cry 54.6% and limpness 7.2% Gustafsson 1996.

1995: An Australian Study Found - rates of systemic signs following the first triple antigen to be irritability 93% intermittent inconsolable crying 43%. and persistent crying 12% Harris et at 1995.

Although Our Medical Authorities - would have us believe that side effects are very rare events Systemic Reactions described are in fact very common.

Efficacy - given the encephalitic like nature of vaccine reaction symptoms and the fact that severe reactions have been acknowledged as encephalopathy for over half a century the assumption that these reactions might be from unknown causes and therefore possibly not from encephalitis seems to be tilting the balance of probabilities to unbelievable limits. What else but post vaccinal encephalitis could manifest such a variety of symptoms ? Such is the sacrosanct position of vaccination in western medicine that the vaccine is assumed to be safe as long as there exists a possibility however remote that it might be safe.

Efficacy This Benefit Of The Doubt - being given to the vaccine is dependent on the assertion that the low rate of mortality and complications from pertussis is due almost entirely to the efficacy of the vaccine. From this position it can be argued that exposure of risks may jeopardize the public's acceptance of the procedure and therefore lead to deadly epidemics. By this approach the media may be pressured in the interests of the community to avoid negative stories on vaccination.

It Is A Remarkable Achievement Of The Medical Establishment's Propaganda - that many parents are misled into believing that vaccination confers complete protection. This belief is not held by the medical profession who believe the benefit is achieved by herd immunity where it is thought that by raising the level of immunity to a disease in the community epidemics will decline and possibly the disease will disappear.

1906: Bordetella Pertussis - was first cultured by Bordet and Gengou in 1906 Cherry 1988 p939.

1914: The Council On Pharmacy and Chemistry Of The American Medical Association - admitted pertussis vaccines to New and Nonofficial Remedies on the basis of what appeared at that time to be acceptable clinical evidence. During the next fifteen years these vaccines were used extensively for both prophylaxis and treatment. The reports indicated that the results were not very satisfactory.

1928: The Council - voted to omit pertussis vaccines from the New and Nonofficial Remedies.

1931: Reports From Different Investigators - continued to vary in 1931 The Council recommended that these vaccines be entirely omitted. Felton and Willard 1944.

1923: In A Trial - of the vaccine during an epidemic in the Faroe Islands during 1923 and 1924 the majority of both vaccinated and nonvaccinated individuals contracted whooping cough. Madsen wrote As a prophylactic measure. It's value therefore was not worth mentioning.

1929: During A Second Epidemic and Trial - in 1929 the prophylactic value of the vaccination seems to have been better than the first one 458 of the 1832 vaccinated avoided whooping cough whereas among the 446 nonvaccinated only 8 did not become infected.

1933: Madsen Mortality - was less in the vaccinated during both epidemics and it was this reason rather than the ability of the vaccine to prevent the disease that was given as showing the vaccine to be of benefit.

1930: Different Types of Pertussis Vaccines - during the 1930s and early 1940s different types of pertussis vaccines were used in various trials throughout the United States. Some of these vaccines appeared to lower the attack rate in vaccinated individuals and to decrease the severity of the disease. Felton and Willard 1944

1937: In These Early Days - of the vaccine it was noted that whooping cough was already becoming a milder disease. Dr. Kerley of New York stated in evaluating the virility of immunizing agencies one must consider the possibility of the natural immunity possessed by the patient and the virulence of the prevailing epidemic. The present is a period characterized by the absence of severity of diseases of the contagious type standing out in marked contrast to the late nineties and early nineteen hundreds. I refer particularly to measles mumps scarlet fever and whooping cough. Sauer 1937

1944: Pertussis Vaccine Was Reinstated - in the New and Nonofficial Remedies. A whole cell pertussis vaccine was combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids already in use to make the triple antigen vaccine. This vaccine has been in widespread use in the United States since the middle 1940s. Cherry etal 1988p953

1957: The English Experience - was different. During controlled trials in the United Kingdom from 1942 to 1944 No significant difference was observed in the incidence or the severity of the disease between the vaccinated and unvaccinated groups. Medical Research Council 1951 Trials in the UK during 1948 to 1951 using vaccines prepared in different laboratories with some of American origin showed increased immunity in the vaccinated. Medical Research Council 1951 Further trials in the UK in 1951 to 1954 compared different vaccines. These trials did not use a control group of unvaccinated children but used an American vaccine as a reference vaccine. Medical Research Council 1956 The pertussis vaccine was then introduced on a mass scale in the UK during 1957.

1976: Bassili and Stewart Studied Notifications - of pertussis in England Wales and Scotland. A trend of decline was already well established before the introduction of mass immunisation in 1957. The velocity of the decline was greater during the six years before 1957 than subsequently. Following negative publicity surrounding the pertussis vaccine during the 1970's acceptance rates in the UK dropped from around 80% in 1974 to around 30% in 1978. Miller 1981.

1990: Cherry - 1988 p 956 A rise in pertussis cases during an epidemic that occurred in 1977 to 1979 is often cited as proof of dire consequences should vaccination rates fall. Professor Stewart being one of those having doubts about the vaccine has taken exception to this claim. Notifications unconfirmed of whooping cough rose sharply to 1.8 per 1000. an increase correspondents attribute to reduced vaccine coverage. In the same period Sweden with 83 - 90% vaccine coverage saw a bacteriologically confirmed pertussis rate of 1.3 per 1000. In the USA with 95% coverage the rate of admission to hospital with pertussis in 1979-81 exceeded that in the UK. Allegations that those who voiced reasonable doubts about the vaccine were to blame for illness in children are disgraceful. Stewart 1990

1977: Stewart - in his 1977 study detected a bias in reporting of cases. It is clear that general practitioners are much less likely to notify whooping cough in vaccinated children even where the symptoms are typical.

1979: Ditchburn - studied an epidemic of whooping cough in a rural practice in Shetland. In this area before July 1974 all children were immunised against pertussis but after that date immunisation was stopped. Of the 134 children studied 93 had been immunised. Sixty-five of the children developed whooping cough. The incidence of infection was similar in those who had and had not been immunised. The incidence was also similar in those born before and after July 1974. Ditchburn believed that there were advantages in a small rural practice in the study of infectious disease. The spread of the infection may be followed from patient to patient and from household to household. It is possible to determine positively which patients did not develop the disease as well as those who did. Large-scale studies of whooping-cough epidemics depend of notifications of disease. This is almost certainly a source of considerable error. The small size of my practice enabled me to study all children under 16 years including those who did not present to me with the disease.

The Medical Establishment

1979: The Figures Presented - though small are accurate Ditchburn noted. The most interesting feature of the study was that the outbreak started and spread among the older children. The immunisation rate in this group was 94%. If the immunisation had been effective this high rate should have produced herd immunity sufficient to have prevented an epidemic. Ditchburn 1979

1940: In Sweden A Pertussis Vaccine - was introduced during the late 1940s and from the early 1960s about 90% of all infants were vaccinated.

1970: During The 1970s Whooping Cough - became more frequent. Since the Swedish made pertussis vaccine evidently lacked protective effect.

1979: Sweden Vaccination - was stopped in 1979. Trollfors and Rabo 1981. Sweden consequently experienced no increase in the death rate from pertussis. Following the discontinuation in the period 1981 to 1983 there were three deaths from pertussis Romanus 1987 and in the period 1987 to 1991 about three deaths were reported National Board of Health and Welfare Sweden 1994. Sweden's death rate is no higher than say vaccinated New South Wales where between 1985 and 1991 there have been four deaths from whooping cough NSW Health Dept. 1993. Western medical authorities acknowledge the low death rate in Sweden since the discontinuation of pertussis vaccination but argue that the side effects of the disease justify continued use of the vaccine in their own countries. If one follows the assumption that unlike the disease the vaccine has no side effects this would be a valid argument.

1996: Recent Studies From Sweden Gustafsson - 1996 and Italy Greco 1996 trialled two different acellular pertussis vaccines. The studies were randomized and double blind with both a DT control group and a whole cell comparison group. In the Swedish trial the efficacy was 85% for a five component acellular vaccine 58% for a two component acellular vaccine and 48% for a whole cell pertussis vaccine.

In The Italian Trial Efficacy - was 84% for a three component acellular vaccine.

Poland 84% - for a different three component acellular vaccine and 36% for a whole cell vaccine. Poland 1996

An Editorial In The New England Journal of Medicine - commented on these studies. A remarkable finding was the low efficacy of the whole cell vaccine. Swedish data suggested this was due to a rapid decline in efficacy in the second year. Contrary to US practice no booster dose was administered at 18 months of age may explain the discrepancy between these efficacy rates and those in the United States. Current US surveillance statistics do not permit the calculation of vaccine specific attack rates and the efficacy of the whole cell vaccines currently used in the United States remains unknown.

1996: Edwards and Decker - although calling attention to the lack of a booster dose in the two studies the editorial didn't mention that the studies only followed the cases for less than two years after the third dose. One would imagine that if herd immunity is the goal then a much longer time period would be necessary to assess the true efficacy of the vaccines. Sweden has since introduced an acellular pertussis vaccine for general use.

1992: Although Few Would Claim - that the whole cell vaccine does not have any effect at all on the epidemiology of whooping cough it is notable that the medical establishment makes grandiose claims about it's effectiveness that appear not to be substantiated. That the vaccine is wholly responsible for the disease's decline is often the impression given by medical authorities. The evidence does not support this view. In Italy where there has never been a coverage to achieve herd immunity the incidence of the disease has fallen since the 1950s. A recent Italian study commented on this decline Low socioeconomic status has been linked to pertussis and it is interesting to speculate whether improved environmental circumstances such as decreased crowding may have played some role in the decline of pertussis in Italy. The country has undergone tremendous economic development and improvements in living conditions since World War 2 from being one of the poorest countries in Europe to becoming one of the six wealthiest nations in The World. The rates of a number of diseases for there was no vaccination or effective prophylaxis such as typhoid and brucellosis show declines of a similar magnitude and timing to that observed for pertussis. Binkin 1992

The Medical Establishment's Position - is somewhat simplistic in that they take the view that as a particular disease may have declined then it is self evident that vaccination was responsible.

One Only Has To Consider The Concurrent Decline - in cases of scarlet fever for there has never been a vaccine to recognise that other factors are involved. One would expect that improving living standards such as hygiene sanitation nutrition and less overcrowding would also have been responsible for a major part of the decline in whooping cough.

Despite Continuing Doubts About The Effectiveness of The Pertussis Vaccine - voiced in the medical literature most contemporary studies particularly those looking at the risks of the vaccine begin their introductions with sweeping claims about it's benefits. The foreword to the Task Force report stated that 600000 deaths due to pertussis occur yearly. Virtually all of these deaths occurred in unimmunized children Cherry 1988 p939.

The Report Does Not Mention - that few of these deaths occurred in developed countries whether they used the pertussis vaccine or not.

What Is Really A Comparison Between Living Standards - is presented as a comparison between immunised and unimmunised children.

The Medical Establishment To Understand This Bias - in favor of the vaccine it should be considered that we have a situation where the medico pharmaceutical establishment that profits from the use of such products also taking on the role of safeguarding the public's interest. This in itself appears to be a conflict of interest albeit one that has come to be accepted in western societies. What is surprising is that on examination this inherent conflict of interest appears to be somewhat more pronounced than is commonly appreciated.

1990: James Cherry - who wrote an editorial on the myth of a pertussis vaccine encephalopathy Cherry 1990 and author of numerous other studies on vaccines has extensive financial ties with the vaccine manufacturers. The month following his editorial a correction was published that stated that information was inadvertently omitted from his signed financial disclosure statement accompanying his editorial submission. Cherry's correction read During the past 6 years I have received grants and contracts from Wyeth and Lederie laboratories to carry out studies related to pertussis and pertussis immunization. Since 1986 I have also been a consultant to Lederie Laboratories to assist in their acellular pertussis vaccine development program. Journ. Amer. Med. Assoc. 1990 Other ties include being paid to testify on behalf of these manufacturer / defendants being sued by parents of vaccine damaged children his department at UCLA being partially funded by vaccine manufacturers and his sitting on the editorial board of Lederie one of the vaccine manufacturers. Cherry is a peer reviewer for the Journal of the American Medical Association puts him in a position to influence what is and what is not published regarding vaccines. Coulter and Fisher 1991 p182 Cherry was also a member of the independent panel that selected case children in the Gale 1994 study. Cherry although possibly the most outstanding is only one of many vaccine researchers with links to manufacturers. Many of the studies are supported by grants from manufacturers Coulter and Fisher 1991 p183-184 that must obviously call into question their independence. Generally the public is not aware of these associations and assumes scientific objectivity to be the order of the day.

1991: Coulter and Fisher - argue that the production of medical knowledge is controlled by a series of interlocking directorates of the kind that were banned by the anti trust laws. Professor Stewart has pointed out that this directorate is in fact global with something like 100 people controlling what goes on in the entire world of vaccines. Coulter and Fisher 1991 p181

Given That The Overwhelming Body Of Opinion By The Medical Establishment - finds in favor of vaccines it then becomes a case of consensus medicine. The unquestioned value of immunisation is instilled into medical students entering a system not of their making. Because of the tremendous responsibility to make the correct decisions doctors accept the scientific teachings and doctrines of their profession. In these circumstances the sacred cow of western medicine has become an edifice held up by the beliefs of a scientific and medical fraternity unwilling to consider the possibility that these beliefs may in any way be unjustified. Thus being human and fallible the doctor or scientist when caught in a position where their basic belief system is questioned might innocently or deliberately mislead either themselves or others.

Should They Be Honest - or naive enough to try and express concerns they might find a medical establishment intolerant of those stepping out of line. The writer of this paper has no doubts that some doctors either fully or partially vaccinate their own children. They would hardly do so if they did not believe the benefits to outweigh the risks. Like the rest of society the average GP appears to have little knowledge about vaccines. Doctors like the majority of parents may also defer to experts on the matter of vaccination.

It Seems That Some Doctors Become Overzealous - in withholding from The Public and themselves recognition of potential dangers. An all too common story from parents of vaccine damaged children is that they are told by doctors it is just coincidental that their child became ill following the administration of the vaccine or perhaps one doctor may quietly admit the vaccine to be the cause. One gets the impression of some sort of professional unspoken rule that vaccines are not to be questioned.

1991: Australia Meryl Dorey President of The Vaccination Awareness Network - based at Bangalow NSW has had over forty cases of adverse reactions reported to her from the local area. Most of the parents believe the reaction caused permanent damage to their child. Despite many of these reactions having occurred since 1991 from when it has been a requirement in NSW that reactions are reported not even one was reported by the health professional involved. The story is similar with other vaccination groups.

1911: Playwright and Social Critic George Bernard Shaw - believed it possible that bad medicine was concealed from The Public. Shaw in 1911 wrote Anyone who has ever known doctors well enough to hear medical shop talked without reserve knows that they are full of stories about each others blunders and errors and that the theory of their omniscience and omnipotence no more holds good among themselves than it did with Moliere and Napoleon. But for this very reason no doctor dare accuse another of malpractice the effect of this state of things is to make the medical profession a conspiracy to hide its own shortcomings. I do not suggest that the medical conspiracy is either better or worse than [other conspiracies]that make up the huge conflict that we call society. But it is less suspected. The radicals who used to advocate as an indispensable preliminary to social reform the strangling of the last king with the entrails of the last priest substituted compulsory vaccination for compulsory baptism without a murmur. Shaw 1911 p1718 Shaw's words appear no less relevant today.

1981: A Reluctance To Report An Event - that may reflect unfavorably on one's profession or open a potential for litigation is not a possibility accounted for in evaluating the legitimacy of current studies. Large scale statistical analyses such as the NCES Miller 1981 are based on voluntary reporting from health professionals. As are notifications of the disease If professionals overlook reporting cases that occur following vaccination then exercises to determine risk factors although appearing very scientific do not in fact give any indication of what is really happening.

A Medical Experiment - it is incredible to say the least that with such basic unknowns as the cause of vaccine reactions appropriate research cannot be instigated to determine the real nature of these reactions. The general public having little interest in such matters assumes that as the matter is one of a scientific nature such research would have been performed. As revealed above there appears to be some difference between a pure science with its inherent quest for knowledge and basic underlying principles and a science compromised by self interested parties wrth little time for investigating areas that may reveal shortcomings in their products and procedures.

The Absence Of Any Study - involving individual children case studies or long term study looking for long term changes apart from the most obvious cases shows an incredible disregard for fundamental questions regarding the biologic effects of vaccines.

The Failure Of The Medical Establishment - to confront these issues undermines the moral position of the profession and negates the authority with that it can claim to speak for The Public Interest. A look at the medical literature reveals that the medical profession have limited understanding and little idea of what vaccines do to developing immune and nervous systems.

1991: The Relationship Between The Immune System - and The Central Nervous System is complex and poorly understood. Hickey 1991

The Situation Becomes Dangerous - when a lack of data is misrepresented as a lack of danger. When childhood vaccination subsequently becomes unquestionably accepted by The Community we end up with a virtual mass medical experiment with unknown results.

Given That The Medical Literature On Vaccine Reactions - is so limited in it's scope a look at other areas including immunology and neurology is necessary to further investigate this experiment.

B-Pertussis and The Immune Response

1977: The Immune System The Immune Response In Humans - is divided into humoral antibody and cellular or cell mediated delayed immunity components. Humoral processes involve the interactions between antigens and antibodies that are produced by B- lymphocytes.

1977: Following Invasion Of The Body - by an antigen macrophages transport the antigen to the lymph nodes. The antigen sensitises certain B lymphocyte cells that enlarge and divide by mitosis to form a done of identical cells. Some become B memory cells but most differentiate to form plasma cells that remain in the lymph nodes. The plasma cells secrete antibodies that travel by lymph and blood to infected areas. The antibodies combine with the antigen to form the antigen antibody complex immune complex. Merck Manual 1977 pp193-197 Sakker 1988 pp57- 61

Cellular Processes Involve The Interactions - between antigens and T-lymphocytes that act both directly and through the elaboration of substances other than antibody.

Some Antigens - such as proteins from bacteria viruses fungi and protozoa can induce a cellular immune response directly.

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyeutis

1977: Following The Transport Of The Antigen - to the lymph nodes the antigen sensitises activates certain T-lymphocyte cells which then undergo clonal proliferation. Some of these become T memory helper or suppressor cells. Most however become killer T cells which leave the lymph nodes and migrate to the sites of infection. These cells are responsible for mediating cellular immunity or injury to host tissue hypersensitivity reactions. The cellular immunity is mediated by a direct toxic effect the T lymphocytes reacting directly with cell-membrane-associated antigens or by releasing various soluble factors called lymphokines. Lymphokines destroy pathogens cause more T cells to become sensitised and increase the inflammation Merck Manual 1977 pp193-197 Sakker 1988 pp57- 61. Cooperation between T and B cells appears to be important in the immune response Merck Manual 1977 p197.

1988: Initial Exposure To An Antigen Stimulates - the primary response. This begins with a latent period during which the antigen stimulates appropriate T and B lymphocytes to become sensitised. It takes about 1 to 14 days for antibodies to appear in the blood serum after initial exposure to an antigen. This is followed by a logarithmic phase during which the amount of antibody rises for a few days until it reaches a peak.

Then The Decline Phase Occurs - during the antibody litre decreases to a low level. A second or subsequent exposure to the same antigen even if years later causes the secondary response. The presence of memory cells enables rapid production of antibodies and sensitised lymphocytes. This secondary response requires less antigen is more rapid greater in intensity and longer lasting than the primary response i.e. the decline phase is much slower. Sakker 1988 pp57-61

Vaccines Act As Antigens - and bring about the primary immune response. Booster injections boost the antibody titre to a higher level and increase the number of circulating memory cells thus reinforcing immunological memory.

1988: B-Pertui Vaccinesss - the vaccine is made from killed whole cells of the bacterium Bordetella pertussis the same bacterium that causes the disease. Components of B pertussis include agglutinogens protein surface antigens filamentous hemagglutinin a cell surface protein and endotoxin an envelope protein Cherry 1988 p940.

1988: The Interest In This Discussion - is on the main biologically active component lymphocytosis promoting factor or LPF. LPF has many biologic effects in animals when infection is induced also when the animals are injected with killed organism preparations. Cherry 1988 p941

1988: Among The Other Names - by this component is known are leukocytosis promoting factor LPF or histamine-sensitizing factor HSF Cherry 1988 p941.

Lymphocytes - are a type of leukocyte and as explained above play a role in both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses.

1988: Around The Turn Of The Century - it was first noted that a marked leukocytosis and lymphocytosis occurred in the blood of children with pertussis this observation has been a consistent marker of the disease ever since. In experimental studies in mice it was found that similar leukocytosis occurs following injection with either living B pertussis organisms killed B pertussis cells or B pertussis supernants. Surprisingly there are few data regarding lymphocytosis in children following immunization. Cherry 1988 p942

1960: It Was First Considered - during the 1960s Pieroni 1965 that LPF and the antigen provokes the immune response are the same substance.

1842: A Pertussis Encephalopathy History - Neurologic complications following pertussis were reported as far back as 1842 Lurie and Levy 1942. Miller Stanton and Gibbons 1956 p486.

1853: Moritz Romberg Professor of Medicine at The University of Berlin - wrote on pertussis in 1853. The Danger is much increased by the supervention of other morbid conditions for the attack itself only proves fatal exceptionally. Bronchitis and pneumonia very frequently complicate pertussis. Next in order to the lungs we find the brain and the medulla oblongata most liable to become implicated. Venous congestion hydrocephalus less frequently scrophulous meningitis and convulsions increase The Danger to the utmost. Romburg 1853 p355

1889: West and Luce - not until late in the nineteenth century that the results of the first autopsies of children dying from whooping cough and its complications were reported. West 1889 and Luce 1898 were the first to demonstrate minute hemorrhages edema and cellular degeneration of the brain in their cases this hemorrhagic basis for the neurological complications of pertussis was generally accepted for many years.

1924: Husler and Spatz Provided Definite Evidence - against a hemorrhagic basis as the sole cause for the neurologic complications and suggested an encephalitic foundation for their occurrence.

1942: Jochims - in 1928 confirmed these findings suggested the term whooping cough encephalopathy. Lurie and Levy 1942

1942: Lurie and Levy - wrote in 1942 Many studies have been made of the cerebral changes in pertussis. These pathologic changes have been divided into three principal groups namely 1 hemorrhagic 2 degenerative and 3 inflammatory. The inflammatory aspect is often acknowledged in contemporary texts on neurology. It has long been recognized that after the acute fevers of childhood or after vaccination the patient occasionally becomes severely ill with diffuse neurological signs indicative of a form of encephalomyelitis usually known because of the anatomical distribution of the lesions as acute disseminated perivenous encephalomyelitis.

Various Clinical Studies Have Established The Relationship - of this condition with measles mumps chickenpox rubella whooping cough and vaccination. Adams 1992 p455

1838: Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis - is the general name given to this form of encephalopathy caused by infectious disease or vaccination. This peculiar and characteristic entity had been separated by the neuropathologists from other types of encephalopathy as early as 1838. More popularly known as post infectious or post vaccinal encephalitis acute disseminated encephalitis differs clinically and pathologically from the encephalitis may be produced by direct attack of a viral or bacterial agent upon the brain during the acute phase of the disease confirmation can be only had by finding the characteristic perivascular demyelination in The Central Nervous System at necropsy. Butt 1965.

When It Comes To The Question of The Mechanisms - behind this demyelinating disorder some writers prefer to leave the answer in the unknown basket.

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis - post infectious encephalomyelitis post vaccinal encephalomyelitis is a demyelinating disease of The Central Nervous System of unknown etiology. Lisak 1974.

An Allergic or Hypersensitive Reaction - to the viral or bacterial agent is one possible and by many accounts most probable mechanism. The temporal coincidence of neurologic symptoms and the appearance of antibodies in the blood is advanced

1979: Demyelination - by some authors as evidence in favor of an allergic factor. Merritt 1979 p102

1965: The Allergic Nature of The Disease - is not thoroughly proved is the most reasonable working hypothesis. Butt 1965 p487

1975: Probably The Condition Is An Allergic Response of The Nervous System - the disorder resembles closely experimental allergic encephalomyelitis the animal model. The clinical picture of the illness is variable sometimes it is primarily encephalitic with headache drowsiness confusion and possibly convulsions. A similar illness is seen rarely after prophylactic inoculation against pertussis and more rarely still after diphtheria or tetanus vaccine. Walton 1975 p292-293

1992: Demyelination - The characteristic feature of acute disseminated encephalomyetitis is perivascular demyelination. Demyelination is the stripping of insulating material myelin from nerve fibres in the brain. The most distinctive histological change of acute disseminated perivenous encephalomyelitis is perivascular demyelination within these lesions axis cylinders are often relatively unaffected but myelin sheaths are totally lost. Adams 1992 p455

1979: H.H. Merritt - emeritus professor of neurology at Columbia University wrote on postvaccinal and postinfectious encephalomyelitis. There is little or no change in the external appearance of the brain or spinal cord. On sectioning there are many small yellowish-red lesions in the white matter of the cerebrum cerebellum brain stem and spinal cord. The characteristic feature of these lesions is a loss of myelin with relative sparing of the axis cylinders. 1979 p102

1990: A Component of Myelin - myelin basic protein MBP is itself encephalogenic and is an antigen used for induction of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in animals. Lisak 1974 Youngchaiyud 1974 Once an encephalitis has begun the process of demyelination contributes further to the inflammation. While the precise mechanism is not fully understood the myelin dissolved in the blood and other fluids by the inflammation of encephalitis seems to act as an additional antigen intensifying the inflammatory reaction. Coulter 1990 p158

1982: The Depositing of Myelin Around Neurons - myelination occurs very late in central nervous system development often after birth in most brain regions of the human infant Ciaranello 1982 and therefore not only might myelin be stripped in these early years of development but the process of myelination itself might be altered.

Post Vaccinal Encephalitis History

Not Only May Viral or Bacterial Diseases - cause the demyelinating disorder known as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis but also the vaccines used against those diseases.

The Fact That Vaccines May Cause Neurological Reactions - has been known for around two centuries.

1801: A Doctor From Paris - in 1801 wrote of the cerebral complications of an earty type of vaccination against smallpox. He spoke of comatose conditions that are often encountered during the period of the fever and also mentioned the occurrence of terrific convulsions. Gorter 1933

1885: Louis Pasteur Introduced The First Vaccine - against rabies. It soon became evident that prophylaxis against rabies was not free of risk many of the patients protected from rabies developed severe reactions as a result of the treatment Amason sporadic occurrence.

1924: Following Epidemics In England - and Holland from around 1924 a post vaccinal variety of encephalitis became widely recognised. Flexner 1930. Miller 1931. Gorter 1933

1926: Epidemic Encephalitis - at first the condition was considered to be epidemic encephalitis it was thought that the disease had been lit up by the vaccination subsequently this view was generally abandoned chiefly because the incidence of encephalitis was steadily diminishing during the years 1926 and 1927 at a time when post vaccinal encephalitis was reaching its zenith.

1931: McAlpine Cases Involved Infants Children - and adults and followed vaccination against smallpox.

Symptoms Were Described - as follows the onset of the nervous symptoms is abrupt and rarely gradual.

Hyperacute Symptoms Are Commoner - in infants than in older children and adults.

Problems - including headache vomiting and pyrexia fever arise but the tendency is for more impressive distinguishing and alarming symptoms to supervene quickly.

In Infants - convulsions involving one or both sides of the body are rarely wanting in older children and adults convulsions are less common and may be absent altogether.

In Hyperacute Cases Consciousness - is quickly lost the temperature rises to an alarming height profound prostation and paralysis set in death may occur in from two to four days. Flexner 1930

1933: Among The Symptoms - headache was rather frequent was often associated with vomiting.

Drowsiness - and even coma were often observed whereas convulsions did not occur as frequently.

Of The Well Developed Cases - almost one third have a fatal issue.

Death Usually Occurs - within a week after the onset of the disease. Gorter 1933

1930: Flexner Noted The Various Hypotheses - that were put forward as the mechanism for these reactions.

One Theory Was That The First Action of The Vaccinia Virus - is to sensitise nervous tissue after that at the height of antibody production reaction occurs this reaction being allergic or anaphylactic in nature producing a kind of shock that ushers in the encephalrtic process.

Against The Allergic Hypothesis - was the failure of so general a biologic phenomenon to appear during the previous hundred years when antismallpox inoculation has been steadily growing in volume.

Another Theory Held That A Latent Virus In The Body - was activated by the vaccination.

Against This View Was That Aside From - its rather sudden appearance the virus must be conceived to possess the extraordinary qualities of wide dissemination over The World and yet of capricious activity.

1933: Thomas Rivers Rivers Sprunt and Berry - reasoned that neurological accidents from vaccinations were allergies and set out to develop an animal model for them. He reported that in monkeys given repeated injections of sterile brain tissue developed a disseminated inflammatory demyelinating encephalomyelitis. Arnason 1987 Abramsky and Steiner.

1989 Inflammation of The Brain - was now seen as an allergic phenomenon. Experimental allergic encephalomyelitis EAE as it has become known is also used as an animal model for multiple sclerosis and various auto-immune diseases.

1933: Madsen - was the first to call attention to complications of pertussis vaccine. Since that time the literature on pertussis vaccine reactions makes little or no mention of encephalitis following earlier vaccines. The designation of post vaccinal encephalitis has rarely if at all been used in connection with neurological complications following vaccination against pertussis.

Term Encephalopathy - that means disease of the brain is used over the term encephalitis that means inflammation of the brain. Also many writers only discuss post infectious or post vacdnal encephalitis In connection with viral diseases and neglect to mention that bacterial diseases such as also cause an aftergic reactor caff

Experimental Allergic Encephalomyeutis EAE

1930: Despite River's Finding of Allergy - behind neurological complications of vaccination during the 1930s when It comes to pertussis vaccine reactions the mechanisms involved according to the medical literature remain unknown.

The Latent Period - the early reports of post vaccinal encephalitis were consistent in finding that the onset of symptoms followed a latent period.

What Is Immediately Striking Is The Strong Tendency For The Nervous Manifestations - to declare themselves between the tenth and thirteenth and especially on the eleventh and twelfth days after vaccination. Flexner 1930

1933: One of The Most Constant Facts - with regard to this type of encephalitis is the incubation period. In 108 cases recorded before 1929 this period was strikingly constant the onset usually being observed on the tenth eleventh or twelfth day after vaccination.

It Was Often Related In The History That The Child - was ill on the seventh or eighth day with fever and agitation but recovered more or less completely so that the encephalitis was separated from the first period of disease by several days of well being. Gorter 1933

1954: Miller and Stanton - cited the stereotyped latent period associated with various inoculations as evidence in support of hypersensitivity the allergic hypothesis as the cause of vaccine reactions.

Today This Latent Period - is rarely mentioned in connection with neurological complications of immunization.

The Dynamics of Humoral Antibody - and cell mediated delayed immunity responses of the immune system to the pertussis vaccine and its relationship to vaccine reactions is seldom explored in the medical literature.

Contemporary Studies on The Pertussis Vaccine - select an arbitrary time limit in that reactions have to occur to be considered as vaccine related. This limit is usually 48 hours but sometimes extended to 7 days.

1994: Contrary To What One Might Expect - given this latent period the NCES Miller 1981

1994: The Study of Neurological Illness In Children Gale Found - that the relative risk of neurological symptoms for periods after the initial six or seven days actually fell to below 1.

In Other Words The Authors Found That An Infant - would be less likely to experience neurological symptoms after seven days following vaccination than if they had not received any vaccine.

This Curiosity Is Explained By The Suggestion That The Vaccine Triggers - or causes the unmasking of an underlying illness and moves forward in time this event to the period immediately following vaccination.

This Suggestion Is Made Without Mention of Possible Biological Mechanisms - behind this unmasking or reference to suporting evidence.

Another Possibility The Experts Don't Consider Is That The Absence of Symptoms Reported - after seven days in these studies may simply reflect the above mentioned bias in reporting by professionals who one would expect should be aware of an incubation period in reactions involving hypersensitivity.

1993: Australia Perhaps The Only Study - that explores the dynamics of post DPT reactions is an independent Australian study by Karlsson and Scheibner 1991 with a monitor that measures breathing volumes found particular times of stress induced breathing following DPT injections. Of special importance are days 2 5 6 and 8 11 13 16 and 18 to 21. Scheibner 1993

Whatever The Dynamics The Medical Literature - shows that administration of pertussis vaccine can be followed by a variety of reactions. These reactions undoubtedly involve a variety of interelated mechanisms. The two of most interest in this discussion are anaphylaxis a systemic allergic reaction involving immediate hypersensitivity and a delayed hypersensitivity reaction mediated by T-lymphocytes. Given a latent period involved in some reactions there appears to be no scientific justification in restricting investigation of these reactions to an arbitrary time period still less justification when this time period is shorter than the latent period revealed in the historical literature on post-vaccinal encephalitis.

1991: In Healthy Mammals The Central Nervous System CNS - appears to enjoy a state of immunological privilege. When an illness occurs that affects the CNS the situation alters dramatically. The components of the immune system rapidly appear inflammation becomes established as in other organs and a typical immunological response occurs directed against invading agents or unfortunately in some diseases against self antigens. Of all animal models of CNS illness it is probable that experimental allergic encephalomyelitis EAE is the most extensively analyzed. Virtually all species of experimental animals are susceptible to it. The disease is a true auto immune condition in that the host animal is induced to mount an immune attack on certain constituents of myelin. The disease will appear after injection of the host animal with antigen in an adjuvant emulsion. Hickey 1991

1982: This Induced Encephalitis - in laboratory animals also shows a delayed reaction or latent period. Clinically and histopathologically EAE shares common features with ADE acute disseminated encephalomyelitis Nine to twenty days following immunization experimental animals develop a variety of neurological signs. Abramsky and Steiner 1989 The time kinetics of the response in an EAE is suggestive of an anaphylactic reaction. Steinman 1982

1954: The Suggestion of Anaphylactic Hypersensitivity - as the cause of vaccine reactions Miller and Stanton 1954 would indicate that these reactions involve a similar mechanism to an EAE an allergic / anaphylactic reaction.

1984: A N Davison Professor of Neurochemistry at The University of London - wrote on the mechanisms involved in demyelination in laboratory animals.

Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis - is an example of a delayed hypersensitivity reaction in that the neuroantigen basic protein activates lymphoid tissue.

There Is Evidence - that T-lymphocytes appear to enter The Central Nervous System where they may release soluble products lymphokines and so initiate the nflammatory reaction. Davison 1984

T-lymphocytes In The Central Nervous System - is a feature not only in an Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis but also in post vaccinal and post infectious encephalomyelitis

1989: The Development of EAE - seems to depend largely upon T cells. Abramsky and Steiner. 1989

1975: The Changes in The Cerebro Spinal Fluid - in all varieties of encephalomyelitis are similar. There is variable pleocytosis presence of a greater than normal number of cells usually lymphocytic. Walton 1975 p294

1987: The Fever Headaches - and myalgia muscular pain that herald neuroparalytic accidents post vaccinal encephalitis are typical of a systemic T-cell mediated delayed hypersensitivity response. The data argue tellingly that neuroparalytic accidents post infectious cephalomyelitis and experimental allergic encephalitis are the same disease. Arnason 1987

An Incorrect Assumption By Some Medical Professionals - may be that T-lymphocytes are activated by the neuro antigen in this case B-pertussis are prevented from entering The Central Nervous System by the blood brain barrier.

If The Blood Brain Barrier - is crossed during an experimental encephalitis or natural infection surely it can be crossed by the same mechanisms after vaccination. Post vaccinal encephalomyelitis !

The Various Parameters - that may be crucial in determining T-lymphocyte penetration of The Central Nervous System have been the subject of much recent research Studies have shown that not only may lymphocytes specific tc.

B-Pertussis and EAE

Myelin Basic Protein Enter The CNS - but an immune response to an external antigen may also penetrate the blood brain barrier with T-lymphocytes.

1991: In Past Years It Has Been Reported That T Lymphocytes - with antigenic specificity to an irrelevant nonself antigen will enter the CNS after being introduced into the circulation. This is an important observation. It would imply that any T cell regardless of antigen specificity could gain access to this immunologically privileged site to seek its antigen what controls this entry ? The T-cell activation state is certainly critical. Hickey 1991

Biologic Properties of The Antigen - plays an important role in determining the nature of this immune response.

1990: B-Pertussis - in particular seems to have a reputation in scientific circles for its biologic properties. M. Pittman a prominent U.S. pertussis vaccine researcher has qualified the microbe as unique among infectious bacteria in its marked ability to modify biological responses. Pittman and Cox 1965 cited Coulter 1990 p102

1993: The Lymphocyte Promoting Factor LPF - of B Pertussis appears to be known for it's special ability to induce lymphocytes to enter The Central Nervous System.

Rockefeller University Head - of the laboratory of molecular infectious diseases at the Rockefeller University Elaine Tuomanen suggests that because of this ability the bacterium may have important research applications.

Bordetella Pertussis Fools The Body - by producing chemical signals that interfere with the ability of patrolling white blood cells to recognise the address at their destination.

Physicians - might use the bioactive part of this bacterium to devise an anti inflammatory agent to treat inflammation of the brain where the surrounding tissue must be protected from the immune system as well as from invaders. Tuomanen 1993

1966: Given The Bacterium's Ability - to induce lymphocytes to cross the blood brain barrier it should come as little surprise to find that pertussis vaccine is used in animal experiments as an adjuvant in the production of an experimental allergic encephalomyelitis EAE Levine 1966. Steinman 1982 Cherry 1988 p943 Coulter 1990 p159.

Addition of Bordetella Pertussis To Sterile Brain - and spinal chord material enhances its ability to generate an allergic encephalitis.

1964: Levine and Wenk - found that a hyperacute form of allergic encephalomyelitis could be produced in laboratory animals with the aid of pertussis vaccine as an adjuvant.

1966: Pertussis Vaccine Acts - as an adjuvant for development of allergic encephalomyelitis accelerating and intensifying It and converting it to a hyperacute form. The active principle is absent from endotoxin preparations but is present in histamine sensitizing factor HSF Levine 1966.

1990: Given The Properties of This Biologically Active Component - of B-pertussis LPF / HSF what does appear most confusing is that this same bacterium is recommended for use on humans.

In The Case of The Australian Vaccine - this recommendation is for a first shot of not more than 20000 million organisms of B pertussis CSL Australia injected into an 8 week old human infant.

Coulter Has Expressed Incredulity - on this point US vaccination authorities seem steadily oblivious to the danger of injecting US children with an adjuvant of all those known to The World of biochemistry has the most pronounced ability to produce allergic sensitization. He noted that like experimental animals small babies are also vulnerable to anaphylactic shock or allergic encephalitis and that the point should be investigated further. Coulter 1990 p159.

1988: On The Matter of The Pertussis Vaccine's Use - in an EAE the Task Force report referred to earlier stated For more than 25 years it has been known that pertussis vaccine is a reliable adjuvant for the production of experimental allergic encephalitis.

This Experimental Allergic Encephalitis - is mediated by sensitized lymphocytes rather than serum antibody mechanisms. Except for the adjuvant effect upon antibody responses to specific vaccines there is no evidence that any of the experimental adjuvant activities of pertussis vaccine and specifically LPF occur in vaccinated children Cherry 1988 p943

This Is A Most Confusing Statement - given not only the ability of the vaccine to sensitise lymphocytes as well as generate antibodies but also encephalitic symptoms following vaccination and the pertussis vaccine's controversial history. Certainly many researchers have been in no doubt as to the vaccine's encephalopathic abilities.

1948: An Important Risk of Encephalopathy - attends use of prophylactic pertussis vaccine. Byers and Moll 1948.

1960: It Is Undeniable That Vaccines May Produce Grave - and even fatal involvement of The Central Nervous System. Pertussis Vaccine has been incriminated more often than other bacterial vaccines. Malmgren 1960.

1974: Pertussis Vaccine - is regarded as containing a potentially encephalopathic factor Kulenkampff 1974

A Flaw

1988: Apparent Oversights - such as the failure to make a connection between the vaccine's encephalopathic abilities in laboratory animals and its controversial history of neurologic involvement in Humans brings us to question a fundamental assumption regarding the practice of vaccination. This basic assumption is that Vaccines induce the immune response but do not result in symptoms of the disease. Sakker 1988 p61

The Flaw In This Assumption - of course is that in the case of neurological involvement following disease it is the overacting immune system produces the inflammation the same immune system that is sensitised following vaccination.

This Seemingly Obvious - and therefore somewhat incredible flaw appears to be a case of allopathic medicine's disregard for the host organism carried to the extreme.

1998: Given This Flaw - it is not surprising that the role of the immune response in a pertussis encephalopathy is often ignored.

The Task Force Report Stated - at the present time the cause of pertussis encephalopathy is not known. The most likely explanation of the majority of cases is anoxia associated with the coughing spasms. Cherry 1988 p948.

1994: Australian National Health and Medical Research Council - follows this line and in discussing the complications of pertussis mentions broncho pneumonia pneumonia and cerebral hypoxia but not post infectious encephalitis. 1994 p31

While A Deficiency of Oxygen - can be one factor in neurological damage the evidence shows that an inflammatory response can also be involved. This response may not be strictly related in time or degree to the disease symptoms.

1965: The Severity of The Primary Disease - has little influence on the severity of the encephalitis. Butt 1965 p488

To Resolve These Flaws in The Medical Establishment's Understanding - of the role of the immune response is a most difficult if not impossible task.

In Response To This Writer's Concerns Regarding Encephalitis Lymphocytes - and The Central Nervous System a senior medico in the Queensland Health Department stated words to the effect that the matter was all very complicated and that a lay person would not be capable of understanding it.

From The Admitted Unknowns - and the surprising lack of specific information related to the cause of both common and severe vaccine reactions the experts urging parents to vaccinate their children must also lack understanding.

Post Encephalitic Behaviour - this brings us back to the point made earlier that

The Vaccination Programs - are a Mass Medical Experiment with Unknown Results.

1990: One Might Be Inclined To Ask - at this point that as there doesn't appear to be a problem with the majority of vaccinated children why head in that direction.

1990: As Professor Stewart - has observed of the use of the pertussis vaccine This long usage proves that they are for most recipients fairly safe. Stewart 1990

The Usual Assumption - is that vaccine damage occurs in an all or nothing fashion. That is. apart from the rare cases of severe damage there are no lesser degrees of neurological changes. Should children who have vaccine reactions either mild or severe subclinical or clinical be experiencing a mild encephalopathy one would in reality expect some consequences. I propose to look at these consequences and examine more closely the question of lesser degrees of damage or changes from the vaccine. The possibility that neurological changes may be occurring in conjunction with seemingly innocuous reactions as drowsiness fever or persistent crying is not mentioned never mind studied by the medical establishment.

1996: Given The High Number of Children Experiencing Reactions - such as unusual crying 54% of children after any of three shots of the whole cell vaccine. Gustafsson 1996 and that neurologic changes may occur even without a marked reaction Low 1955 it appears quite possible this epidemic may be widespread.

To Explore The Effects Of This Epidemic I Propose - to examine a seldom explored area that of post encephalitic behaviour. This may give us an idea of what to look for when considering vaccine damage.

Given The Lack of Consideration - given to this question might it be possible that some effects have been overlooked ?

Post Encephalitic Behaviour

To Examine What Changes May Be Occurring Following - encephalitis entails overcoming a commonly held prejudice in late twentieth century society.

This Prejudice Involves A Disregard For The Physical Brain - as being involved with aspects of an individual's personality.

This Disregard Comes From The Belief - going back to Aristotle that mind and brain are separate.

1983: Frank Elliott Professor Emeritus of Neurology University of Pennsylvania - wrote that this dualism is still prominent in psychiatry and philosophy but has been rejected by most neurobiologists who believe that the brain is the organ of the mind and that the physiological and psychological are but different aspects of the same anatomical substrate. The notion that the mind is something separate from the brain can mislead because it focuses attention solely on mental activities without considering the brain that produces it 1983.

1982: This Prejudice Has Meant That Genetic - and Environmental Factors are often taken as the sole determinants of behaviour.

The Late Norman Geschwind Professor of Neurology Harvard Medical School - wrote We all know that emotional disturbance can be the result of frustrations and stresses resulting from the pressures of everyday life and from the failure to succeed in tasks regarded as important by others. The prevalent idea that all emotional disorder must be the result of such frustrations and stresses makes it extremely difficult to accept that there are instances in which difficulties in emotional adjustment are the primary result of alterations in the brain. 1982

1985: Oliver Sachs Clinical Professor of Neurology - at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine New York and writer who has written extensively on how brain disease affects the mind believes that there is a need to study more closely the relationship between mind and brain. The patient's essential being is very relevant in the higher reaches of neurology and in psychology for here the Patient's Personhood is essentially involved and the study of disease and of identity cannot be disjoined. Such disorders and their depiction and study indeed entail a new discipline which we may call the neurology of identity for it deals with the neural foundations of the self the age old problem of mind and brain. Sachs 1985.

Sach's Call For a New Discipline - to look at the relationship between identity and disease of the brain should call attention to a void in contemporary literature. This curious neglect of study into personality and behaviour as related to disease and consequent structural changes to the brain is an outstanding feature of the twentieth century and to be fully appreciated needs to be seen in its historical context.

Neurology in the 19th Century

Prior To This Century - there was not the same tendency to separate brain and mind and researchers had a more combined vision of body and soul.

1861: The Scientific Study of The Relationship Between Brain and Mind - began in 1861 when Broca in France found that specific difficulties in the expressive use of speech aphasia consistently followed damage to a particular portion of the left hemisphere of the brain. Sachs 1985 p1

1863: Broca's Finding Opened The Way To A Cerebral Neurology - that made it possible over decades to Map The Human Brain ascribing specific powers linguistic intellectual perceptual etc. to equally specific centres in the brain. Sachs 1985 p1

1863: Dax Discovered The Left Hemisphere - lateralization in Language.

1865: Bernard Located The Motor Centre - of Language.

1873: Charcot Outlined The Phases In The Development - of hysteria as well as its signs and symptoms. Barton 1987 p49

1860: France Study of The Nervous System - during the 1860s the preeminence of France in The Study of The Nervous System yielded to Germany and Switzerland.

1860: Germany Wilhelm Griesinger Began Research - in Germany on The Somatic Aspects of mental disorders he believed were always diseases of the brain.

1860: Professor of Medicine in Zurich - 1860-1864 second edition of textbook Mental Pathology and Therapeutics appeared.

This Work Explained The Role of Infectious Diseases - in and the pathological anatomy of mental illness. Barton 1987 p49

1876: Although Recognised As Having A More Complex Basis - than sensory or motor skills forms of mental illness as Griesinger explained were often regarded as organic.

Henry Maudsley Professor Of Medical Jurisprudence In University College London - wrote in 1876 insanity might truly be described as a chorea or convulsive disease of the mind the derangement being in nerve centres whose functions are not motor but mental and whose derangements therefore display themselves in convulsions not of the muscles but of mind. p42

1876: The Simultaneous Occurrence Of Impulsive Insanity - and epilepsy was cited as evidence of an organic basis. These are facts of medical observation first that an outbreak of irresistible homicidal impulse may occur in a Person who has the epileptic neurosis without there ever having been an attack of actual epilepsy either in the form of epileptic vertigo or epileptic convulsions secondly that it may immediately precede or really take the place of an attack of epilepsy in either of its forms and thirdly that it may follow an attack of epilepsy in either of its forms of usual occurrence after an attack of petit mal and pretty frequent after a regular convulsive fit Maudsley 1876 p 170

Moral Insanity - an insanity of the active and moral powers the feelings affections propensities temper habits and conduct

Encephalitis Lethargica - was regarded as a variety of organic disorder.

1876: Maudsley Wrote On Cases Of Moral Insanity The Intelligence - is often acute enough indeed they often they often display an extraordinary ingenuity in explaining excusing or justifying their behaviour exaggerating this ignoring that and so coloring the whole as to make themselves appear the victims of misrepresentation and persecution after a sufficient and well recognised cause of mental derangement a Person exhibits symptoms that are strangely inconsistent with his previous character but are consistent with moral insanity. Or it may appear that there has been an attack of paralysis or epilepsy or a severe fever and that the change of character and the symptoms of moral alienation have followed one of these physical causes. Perhaps the strongest evidence of the nature of moral insanity as a disease of brain is furnished by the fact that its symptoms sometimes precede for a time the symptoms of intellectual derangement in a severe case of undoubted insanity as for example a case of acute mania or of general paralysis or of senile dementia. Maudsley 1876 p172-174

Mind and Brain

1900: Germany Study of Mind and Brain - toward the end of the nineteenth century it became evident that The Mapping of Specific Powers to Specific Centres in The Brain was all too simple that all mental performances had an intricate internal structure and must have an equally complex physiological basis. Sachs 1985 p1 Germany led the way in an increasingly sophisticated study of mind and brain. Before the First World War German neurological literature clearly dominated that of all other nations and was avidly read and studied. Geschwind 1984

1918: This Combined Vision of Mind and Brain - was not to last. Following the war the simultaneous growth of Dynamic Psychiatry and Holistic Psychologies split the combined vision of body and soul. German Neurological Literature had reached its peak prior to the war was thereafter neglected. Articles or books on the higher functions in English or French after 1918 show a remarkable tendency to omit or misquote German references. Geschwind 1984

An Important Exception To This Trend - toward a separation of mind and brain occurred as a result of a Global Epidemic of Encephalitis beginning toward the end of The First World War.

Encephalitis Lethargica

1917: Encephalitis Lethargica This Form Of Infectious Encephalitis - came to be known as encephalitis lethargica or Von Economo's disease. after professor Constantin von Economo of Vienna who in 1917 published a monograph entitled Encephalitis Lethargica in which he outlined the results of his research on that disease von Economo 1929 The Lancet 1931. Also known as epidemic encephalitis or sleeping sickness in the ten years that it raged this pandemic took or ravaged the lives of nearly five million people before it disappeared as mysteriously and suddenly as it had arrived in 1927 Sachs 1973 p13.

1927: The Initial Signs of Encephalitis Lethargica - are varied. Sudden or insidious in its onset it may be mistaken for acute mania hemorrhage influenza acute abdominal disease lumbago disseminated sclerosis chorea epilepsy and other conditions. Frequently it was only when the acute stage had passed and the characteristic sequelae appeared that is was possible to recognise the real nature of the disease. In the case of children the main disorder consists of profound emotional instability with perversion of conduct. The presumption is that the peculiar character of the sequelae in children is determined by the fact that the disease has supervened during the early developmental period and that neural dissolution has occurred N McKenzie 1927

1927: This Perversion of Conduct - as a sequel to a case of encephalitis lethargica provided further evidence for an organic basis to the moral insanity of the nineteenth century. On the mental aspects of the disease a paper in 1927 wrote of typical cases The moral aspect of his behaviour has been emphasized naturally enough as it is his apparent disregard of all moral considerations that makes him impossible Marshall 1927

1928: Another Feature of Encephalitis Lethargica - was the long range of symptoms and outcomes The varieties of acute manifestations and sequelae of the disease seem to be endless. Ziegler 1928.

1931: Von Economo's Monograph - was translated into English in 1931 and became famous for its extensive descriptions of cases. Because von Economo was both a clinician and a pathologist he could link the clinical picture of the more than five hundred variants he described. Rapaport 1990 p88

Post Encephalitic Behaviour

1933: Kahn and Cohen First Described - a condition organic driveness found in a number of cases where hyperkinesis due to a surplus of inner impulsion was the predominant feature. According to these authors this brain stem disturbance with the subsequent organic driveness is found in various encephalopathies notably encephalitis epidemica. but it can also occur in various degenerative diseases of the nervous system and there may also be a constitutional type. Numerous papers appeared after the original report of Kahn and Cohen describing the hyperkinetic or post-encephalitic child. Levy 1959 Hyperkinesia is abnormally increased motor function hyperactivity

1938: Apart From Encephalitis Lethargica Epidemica - infectious diseases of childhood were also recognised as a cause of a range of behavioural disorders. Encephalitis is a very rare complication of whooping cough and if recovery takes place is apt to leave a wake of mental disorders. Wesselhoeft 1938

1948: One Series of Studies - was undertaken at The Child Guidance Home of the Jewish Hospital. Cincinnati Ohio Lurie and Levy 1942. Lurie 1947. Greenebaum and Lurie 1948.

1920: Studies at The Home Began - in 1920 when there was beginning recognition of encephalitis complicated by Personality Changes and Behavioural Disorders. Personality Changes Lurie & Levy 1942

1942: First of These Studies Was Titled Personality Changes and Behaviour Disorders - of Children Following Pertussis and studied 34 cases selected from a group of 500 problem children. Of the 500 children 243 had suffered a previous attack of whooping cough. Fifty eight had a specific history of an attack prior to two years of age. This group of 58 was narrowed down to 34 cases where there appeared to be a definite relationship between the neurologic sequelae of the whooping cough and the behaviour disorders and personality changes shown by them later in life. Lurie and Levy 1942

1942: The Authors Stated - that it was felt that the antisocial asocial or abnormal behaviour or personality distortions that these children exhibited in later years had as their bases structural changes produced in the brain during the attack of whooping cough. This conclusion was reached only after a very careful and thorough study and evaluation of all the physical social emotional intellectual constitutional and hereditary factors that directly or indirectly might have had a bearing.' Lurie and Levy 1942

From The Standpoint of Behaviour The Study Group - of 34 was divided in 4 groups. The first group 8 children showed prepsychotic or psychotic behaviour. Paranoid ideas visual and auditory hallucinations and a tendency to withdraw from reality were among the outstanding characteristic symptoms. In the second group were placed those 6 children who showed progressive intellectual deterioration. The third group 17 children is most interesting. It was described as follows. The behaviour of this group was of the type that is Usually described as post-encephalitic. The conduct and personally changes form a typical picture which is easily recognized even in the absence of positive neurologic findings. The behaviour of the children was characterized by hyperactivity extreme restlessness destructiveness and short attention span. The fourth group 3 children showed a type of behaviour that was a combination of two or more of the foregoing types. Lurie and Levy 1942

The Neglect Of The Neurology Of Behaviour

1942: The Authors Believed That Even - apparently uncomplicated attacks of pertussis occurring in early childhood may change personality. Many obscure cases of behaviour disorders may become understandable if evaluated in the light of the history of an attack of whooping cough early in infancy. The type of structural involvement was briefly mentioned in the study Although from the clinical standpoint it was possible to divide the types of abnormal behaviour into four principal groups no definite correlation could be made between a specific type of behaviour and a specific type of brain involvement. In other words with the possible exception of some of the postencephalitic cases it was impossible to tell from the clinical picture alone whether the types of behaviour exhibited by the children were due to either circulatory hemorrhagic or inflammatory changes in the brain as a result of the whooping cough. Lurie and Levy 1942

1947: Lurie - 1947 Greenebaum & Lurie 1948

1947: Child Guidance Home Lurie - reported the follow up of 50 children from The Child Guidance Home presenting behaviour disorders and personality changes following an attack of encephalitis. Of the 50 children 39 were boys and 11 were girls.

1948: Greenebaum and Lurie - 1948 published a study of an enlarged group of 78 children comprising 61 boys and 17 girls. The cases many now being adults having been studied for up to 25 years were divided into three groups those showing 1 simple behavioural disturbances 2 psychopathic behaviour and 3 psychotic behaviour.

Those With - simple behavioural disturbances 26 children were restless hyperactive aggressive noisy domineering and exhibited temper tantrums. Of those classified psychopathic 36 children some were phlegmatic apathetic asocial and made little effort to enter into group activities.

The Majority of The Group - were hyperactive and lacked ability to concentrate. Those classified psychotic 16 children exhibited such symptoms as moodiness. crying spells irrelevant talk outbursts of screaming causeless laughter and occasionally hallucinatory phenomena. They were impossible to control and became violent when thwarted.

1948: Some Cases Showed - neurologic abnormalities such as petit mal and grand mal seizures signs of parkinsonism and abnormal EEG tracings. Greenebaum and Lurie agreed with previous studies that the diagnostic criteria for encephalopathic behaviour disorders are now considerable. They noted Even without the history of a specific neuro pathology the diagnostic methods which may be applied to fields of behaviour are sufficient to establish a diagnosis. Greenebaum and Lurie 1948

1959: Child Guidance Home Late Studies - studies such as described above were by the 1940s and 50s the exception rather than the rule. The major focus was emotional reactions to past life experiences as major determinants of behaviour and psychologic factors were accepted as responsible for behaviour disorders. Very rarely the mention of post encephalitic behaviour was heard. Levy in 1959 called attention to the syndrome and trialled the use of amphetamines on a group of 100 problem children. Levy wrote In these days with behaviour disorders and juvenile delinquency on the rampage it seems a great tragedy to adhere too stubbornly to a unilateral attitude regarding the concept of these conditions. It is felt that a great many cases labeled as behavior disorder and juvenile delinquency are caused by an unrecognized organic brain disorder usually as shown in this paper in the form of a post encephalitic behavior disorder. Levy 1959

1968: Sabatino and Cramblett - reported the results of a study of 14 children who had suffered an infection of California encephalitic virus. The authors noted the lack of current study into the effects of encephalitis. There are numerous reports of acute encephalitic illness in children.

US There Are Only A Limited Number of Studies - in the USA on the behavioral sequelae of encephalitis in children. Of the 14 children they wrote The personality seemed to fit the organic hyperkinetic syndrome. A cluster analysis of the behavioral sequelae shows these patients to be typically nervous hyperactive restless disruptive distractible easily frustrated tense preoccupied with self and irritable. 1968

1984: Despite The Existence of Studies on Post Encephalitic Behaviour - in particular the extensive literature on the sequels of encephalitis lethargica that gave extensive evidence of personality change following disease or encephalitis the psychoanalytic approach dominated.

Of The Post World War 1 Period Geschwind Wrote Despite Freud's - own background in neurology and the constant assertion of his biological interest references to the brain are almost totally lacking in the literature of psycho analysis in that period.

Neurological Aspects of Behaviour - were almost totally lacking in British academic psychology and the tremendous growth of psychology as a discipline in the United States was accompanied by a strong aversion to the belief that the structure of the brain could help to account for behaviour in the field of the neurology of behaviour major advances were neglected not for a few years but for nearly half a century. Geschwind 1984

1991: In Recent Times The Organic Side - has been making a comeback.

Advanced Technology - that allows monitoring of brain activity has demonstrated that the brain and behaviour are closely related The central tenet of modern neural science is that all behaviour is a reflection of brain function. According to this view what we commonly call mind is a range of functions carried out by the brain. Kandel 1991 p5

The Most Remarkable Aspect - of this comeback is that it has occurred without mention of behavioural changes from disease or encephalitis. It's as if a fact such as personality change following disease has never existed. Despite its huge significance to the study of Human Behaviour mention of behavioural changes from encephalitis appears absolutely taboo in modem scientific and medical literature. Mention is restricted to brief references in neurological texts and virtually never in psychology or even behavioural physiology texts.

The Results of The Post World War 1 Epidemic of Encephalitis Lethargica - are recalled only on rare occasions.

1973: One Neurological Text 1973 Edition Stated Following - apparent recovery severe behavioural disturbances especially in children may ensue.

These Personality Changes - sometimes require institutionalization of the patient. Chusid 1973 p308 It does not elaborate and nowhere gives any physiologic explanations or hypotheses to account for these disturbances.

No One Argues That Encephalitis Does Not Cause Changes To Personality - on the other very few mention that it does or at least in any detail.

Consideration of Personality Change - caused by structural changes to the brain during infancy rarely enters into current mind / brain concepts or the nature versus nurture debate.

Biological Reductionism Places Behaviour - into exact categories and by drawing physical connections between behaviour and the brain offers compact causal explanations

Encephalitis - is not considered for study and if it was its multifaceted nature would cause conceptual problems for a system now used to looking at different neurologic conditions as discrete entities.

The Consequences

The Study of Psychology Argues That Psychological Analyses - must include such things as Individual Personality subjective needs and situational and cultural variables.

Unless One Holds That A Human's Interaction With His Environment - is Responsible for The Total Person and that there is no Individual Personality as such organic factors such as Encephalitis must also be considered.

1948: Greenebaum and Lurie Stressed That - a knowledge and understanding of all the factors physical psychiatric psychologic and sociologic which may be involved in a given case is essential. If one does not look at the possibility of post-encephalitic behaviour. obviously all factors are not being considered.

Ignorance of Past Knowledge and Assumed Lack of Causal Factors - and a conditioned prejudice toward an organic basis for the more subtle and complex aspects of The Human Personality combine to block this consideration.

This Prejudice - is indeed so powerful that The Concept of Personality Change following inflammatory processes occurring in conjunction with disease or vaccination is for many Incomprehensible.

That Sensory Information and Motor Behaviours Are Affected - by encephalitis is understandable. Given our conditioning toward the nurture aspect of Human Behaviour what is less easy to grasp is The Changes in Personality. As we have seen these changes may involve overlapping areas such as free will empathy for fellow humans emotion conscience intellect and sense of identity.

The Swedish Experience Demonstrates - that at least in the case of pertussis discontinuing vaccination has no effect on the very low mortality from that disease.

The Benefits Are Seen To Be - in reduced complications from the disease.

It Is Thought That Complications of Vaccination Are Negligible - when compared with the complications of the disease.

If This Was The Case The Undisputed Lower Incidence - and severity of childhood diseases should also yield a lower incidence of conditions associated with those diseases such as post infectious encephalitis and its consequences.

I Will Show That Unfortunately This Is Not The Case - and that conditions associated with encephalitis have actually risen rather than declined.

The Evidence Also Shows That Increases In A Wide Range of Neurologic - and immunologic disorders may be due at least in part to the childhood vaccination programs.

It Would Be Paradoxical That These Increases In Post Encephalitic Conditions - to have come from the very measures that are designed to facilitate their eradication

Reasons For Increases in Some of The Conditions Discussed - often explained by a range of physical and sociological factors eg genetic flaws pollutants and additives in food permissiveness family disruption media various stresses associated with the modern age etc etc.

As The Various Roles Played By This Multitude of Factors - remain a matter of some dispute the contribution of mass vaccine damage should also be considered.

From The Medical Establishments Point of View - as there is no evidence or even suggestion of mass damage in the literature and as unfounded criticism of vaccination programs is considered against The Public Interest The Subject simply doesn't exist.

Among Groups of People Calling For Closer Scrutiny - and research into vaccines the issue of mass vaccine damage is one of deep concern.

The Following Continues The Focus on Damage From Vaccine Reactions - with the continuing emphasis on the pertussis vaccine and encephalitis.

Other Possible Consequences of Vaccination - such as cot death childhood leukemias auto immune diseases latent viral diseases AIDS and cellular genetic changes are generally not considered in this paper.

The Proposition Presented Below - is not claiming that conditions possibly associated with vaccine damage are new.

Historically Encephalitis - from causes other than vaccination mainly from infectious disease also from other causes such as lead poisoning and traumatic injury has produced post encephalitic behaviours and conditions. The contribution of vaccination toward increases in these conditions is considered.

Warnings Disregarded

1967: The Subject of Mass Vaccine Damage - particularly those relating to neurological changes has only on very rare occasions been circulated. Dr. Yves Delatte in a book titled Vaccines The Untold Truth cites a Professor De Lore By vaccinations we are introducing behavioural changes in entire generations. We alter the power of thinking we increase emotivity and anxiety. Maybe other factors need to be taken into account but we are creating generations without ideals
amorphous and colorless. De Lore 1967

1985: Following DPT A Shot in the Dark - 1985 Harris Coulter continued his research into vaccination and in 1990 published a major work on the effects of post vaccinal encephalitis titled Vaccination Social Violence and Criminality.

1969: Since Receiving The Ph D From Columbia University - in 1969 Coulter has written ten books and several dozen articles on the intellectual and social history of medicine homeopathic and osteopathic medicine clinical trial procedure and vaccination.

His Book DPT A Shot in The Dark - is listed in the references of the 1988 Task Force Report.

The Medical Establishment - has not yet responded to Vaccination Social Violence and Criminality.

1990: Coulter Challenges The Assumption - that long term sequelae will not occur in the absence of an acute reaction. p 119 He stated Any researcher who ignores or rejects the possibility that vaccination can cause the most serious neurologic disorders in the absence of a marked acute reaction will have to find grounds for distinguishing post vaccinal encephalitis from encephalitis due to other causes. Coulter 1990 p121 As neurologic changes are assumed to follow only the most severe reactions this point is absolutely critical in the vaccination debate.

1990: In Conclusions Coulter Wrote - this book advances the startling thesis that childhood vaccination programs cause a wide range of neurologic disabilities that these disabilities yield the bulk of the autistics minimally brain damaged and sociopaths who have undermined the American educational system and American society giving this country during the past two decades the highest crime rate in its history.

The Most Cogent Evidence - for this is found in the symptomatic parallels among the five conditions described vaccine damage the post encephalitic syndrome autism minimal brain damage and the sociopathic personality.

Some Will Criticize - our essentially symptomatic approach. The main reason for adopting it has been that no unambiguous anatomical physiological or biochemical indicator of vaccine damage exists.

Careful Symptomatic Descriptions - are ultimately the best evidence of the parallels among the neurologic disabilities discussed. Coulter 1990 p249.250

Below I Will Examine Those Childhood Conditions That Coulter Explores - in his analysis of vaccine damage autism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder minimal brain dysfunction. I will also look at related conditions and the more general effects of a pandemic of post-vaccinal encephalitis on western societies.

Autism History Increasing Sensitization

1954: The Finding of Anaphylactic Hypersensitivity - as the cause of vaccine reactions Miller and Stanton 1954 ties the relationship between allergies vaccination and encephalitis.

1990: Coulter Alleged It Is Common Knowledge In The Medical Establishment - that encephalitis especially from vaccination can give rise to an allergic state while conversely the existence of an allergic state predisposes to the development of encephalitis after vaccination. 1990 p152 He suggested that the level of allergic sensitization of the American population has been steadily enhanced by 20th century vaccination programs 1990 p160. If one considers the hereditary aspect to allergic conditions and the idea that vaccines may be sensitising Humans it would follow that The Medical Establishment may be altering our genetic code by vaccinations.

1929: An Increasing Involvement of The Central Nervous System - following diseases or vaccinations was first noted during the 1920's.

1929: Editorial Journal of The American Medical Association Stated - during the last few years an apparent increase has occurred in severe nervous complications of certain infectious diseases and of certain inoculation procedures. Anti smallpox vaccination has been followed in a very small number of cases usually on about the eleventh day after vaccination by cases termed meningo encephalitis or encephalitis. These have been noted chiefly in England and Holland similar manifestations have occurred in other parts of Europe and in America. In a few scattered areas small epidemics of post vaccinal encephalitis have developed. JAMA 1929

1934: Josephine Neal Wrote - there has been a marked increase in the reports of encephalitis following vaccination measles and other acute infections. While it is now known that encephalitis may run a mild course in the acute stage and escape recognition the symptoms in the more severe cases are so arresting that they could hardly have passed unnoticed. It is not probable that clinical diagnosis has been any keener in the past two decades than in the preceding years. Neal 1934

The Results of This Increasing Sensitization - are to be seen in increases in hayfever asthma and other allergic conditions as well as a Greater Reactivity to vaccines in today's children.

Hay Fever - is a modem epidemic. In less than two centuries hay fever has progressed from being a medical curiosity to a commonplace illness.

Among Swiss Town Dwellers - its prevalence rose steadily from 1 per cent in 1926 to 5 per cent in 1958 and 10 per cent in 1986.

Between The Early 1970s - and the early 1980s cases almost doubled in Britain and Sweden.

Numbers Are Still Increasing Rapidly Today - despite the fact that the pollen count is falling.

US Reported Cases Climbed Steadily - in the US to reach 9 per cent by the 1960s.

In Japan - the rise began much later: hay fever was virtually unknown before the 1950s but its prevalence has rocketed in the past 40 years to reach 10 per cent or more today. Gamblin 1990

Once Thought Of - as a non fatal condition asthma has now become a significant cause of death in industrialised countries.

It Seems Incredible - that sensitizing babies by repeated injections of foreign proteins is rarely considered as a cause for these increases.

1994: An Exception Was A 1994 Study Odent - that had some unexpected findings. When 243 children immunized against pertussis were compared with 203 children not immunized against pertussis it was found that the immunized children were more than five times more likely to have asthma.

Like The Overwhelming Majority of Warnings - on possible side effects of vaccines published in the medical literature these findings appear to have been ignored. At the very least further study appears warranted.

Should There Be A Relationship Between Vaccinating Infants - and the increasing sensitization of the populations of Industrialised Countries the implications would be significant to say the least. Given the close relationship between the immunologic system and the neurologic system one could expect that behavioral changes would accompany these immune system changes. Researchers find that there is indeed a close relationship between autoimmunity and behavior.

1996: Estimates of Psycho Pathology - in severe asthmatics range from 30% to 63%. Wamboldt 1996

Autism History

1943: Leo Kanner From Baltimore - publish description of a psychotic illness in children and designated it as early infantile autism Kanner 1971. Van Krevelen 1971. One year later and apparently without the knowledge of Kanner's work the Viennese pediatrician Asperger reported a number of children as autistic psychopaths Van Krevelen 1971. Kanner's syndrome has become widely known as autism while Asperger's autistic psychopathy is now designated as Asperger's syndrome and is thought to be related to a high functioning form of autism.

1989: In The Early Years Autistic's Parents - were observed to be highly educated it was thought that their lack of warmth and genuine interest contributed to the psychodynamics of the patient's abnormal condition A large proportion of the fathers are successful professionals and businessmen. They are for the most part scientists college professors artists clergymen business executives and the like. The mothers with few exceptions have attended college and have been active before marriage and some also after marriage as scientists laboratory technicians nurses physicians librarians artists. Bakin 1954 Kanner noted that all but three of the 11 cases that he described had family members who appeared in Who's Who or in Men of Science. Frith 1989 p55

1989: This Earlier Skewed Distribution - has now evened out and it is thought that the earlier reported associations are artifacts and a result of selection bias Frith 1989 p55.

1990: This Shift in The Socio Economic Distribution Pattern - of autism can readily be explained in terms of childhood vaccination. Traditionally it was the higher educated parents who insisted on the latest medical breakthroughs for their children and the early vaccinations were often only for those who could afford private physicians. It wasn't until the advent of free vaccinations and mass vaccination programs that the incidence of autism in different socio economic classes evened out Coulter 1990 pp 51-53.

1943: Kanner's Designation of Early Infantile Autism - in 1943 follows the increased sensitization to smallpox vaccines and infectious diseases noted from the 1920's. Kanner's eleven patients were born from 1931 to 1938 Kannner 1971 and that pertussis vaccination programs were only sporadic during the 1930s Coulter 1990 p254.

It May Appear Difficult To Relate These Early Cases Entirely - to the pertussis vaccine.

Might The Introduction of Diphtheria Vaccines in The United States - along with the smallpox vaccines have played a part in what was in the early years a rare condition ?

1929: August US Large Scale Diphtheria Vaccinations - began in New York in 1929 Brit. Med Journal Aug 1942.

1940: United Kingdom Mass Vaccination For Diphtheria - began from 1940 to May 1942.

1940's: US The Triple Antigen Vaccine - diphtheria pertussis tetanus has been in widespread use in the United States since the middle 1940s Cherry 1988 p953.

1948: UK Small Scale Pertussis Vaccination - began about 1948.

1957: UK Mass Pertussis Vaccination - in 1957 Brit. Med. Joum. Stewart 1977.

UK The More Recent Introduction of Mass Vaccination Programs - in the United Kingdom may be the reason why autism appears to have made a slower appearance than in the United States.

1962: Parents of Autistic Children Formed The National Society - for Autistic Children in Britain.

Autism Etiology

1973: The Average Age of Children - was about 5 with only a scattering over 9 years old. Everard 1973

For The First Two Decades of Autism Researchers - looked for psychological causes and the mother was often blamed for the condition.

This Reflected The Lack of Alternative Explanations - offered as a possible cause for this new condition.

The Early Association of Professional Intellectual Parents - with autism fueled the myth of the refrigerator mother.

1954: More Astute Observers Noted That Blaming The Parents - failed to explain why the siblings of autistic children are generally normal and infantile autism is sometimes seen where the parents are normally warm and affectionate Bakin 1954

1964: Bernard Rimland - published his book Infantile Autism The Syndrome and its Implications for a Neural Theory of Behavior. This work laid the foundations for an organic basis for autism.

Autism Symptoms

Although The Predominant Feature of Autism - is an inability to relate in the ordinary way to people and to situations the syndrome is remarkable for its variety of abnormal behaviors and neurological deficits.

1986: Immunologists and Neurologists - as well as psychiatrists have tried to correlate some symptoms of autism to encephalopathy on the basis of aberrant immunological responses. Tsaltas 1986

1988: Components of The Autistic Continuum Include - impairment of social interaction recognition communication and imagination and understanding the triad repetitive patterns of activity circumscribed interests in higher level autistics language abnormalities changes to motor coordination abnormal responses to sensory stimuli characteristic of the more severely handicapped and changes in cognitive skills. Many other elements may be present. These include poor attention span hyperactivity high levels of anxiety and disturbances of behaviour such as aggression self injury destructiveness and temper tantrums. There may be abnormalities of fluid or food intake or sleeping patterns physical handicaps visual or hearing impairments or cerebral palsy and depression Wing 1988.

1991: Autism Is Associated With Epilepsy - one third of the population of people with autism have developed seizures in early adult life. The majority of cases with autism who have epilepsy also have retardation but it is in no way exceptional for a child with normal intelligence and autism to have epilepsy also. Gillberg 1991

1996: There is Little Diagnostic Uncertainty - in autistics exhibiting typical traits some other children show only a tendency toward autism. Noted authority on autism. Michael Rutter wrote that it is evident that many children present syndromes that appear to have features of autism but yet do not fulfill the currently accepted criteria in their entirety Rutter 1996.

1996: Autistics Show Various Immune System Alterations - and these have often been cited in support of perinatal infection or autoimmune theories of autism Denny 1996.

1996: Gupta Noted That Patients With Autism - demonstrate autoimmune phenomenon as demonstrated by the presence of antimyelin antibodies and cell mediated response to myelin basic protein. Isn't this what we would expect after an allergic encephalomyelrtis ?

1990: The Award Winning Film Rain Man - bought Public Attention to an unusual aspect of autism. It told a story of an autistic savant and his self centred brother who possessed a powerful memory.

In a Small Minority of Cases Some Autistics - display above average and even superior levels of abilrty.

These Abilities - are sometimes referred to as islets of ability isolated islands of proficiency islets of intelligence or splinter skills Seife 1977 p107. Wing 1988 Sachs 1985 p209 Coulter 1990 p16.25.

The Term Autistic Savant - is now more often used than the historical terms of idiot savant or talented aments.

1969: The Idiot Savant - has always been regarded as something of a psychological curiosity. Their special skills include calendric calculation mathematical manipulation demonstration of amazing powers of recall musical precocity and occasionally exceptional ability in art. Viscott 1969

1988: In Some of These Persons Talented Savants - the skills are remarkable simply in contrast to the handicap. In others prodigious savants the abilities are not just spectacular in contrast to the handicap they would be spectacular even if they occurred in normal persons. The condition can be congenital or be acquired by an otherwise normal individual following CNS injury or disease. Treffert 1988

1940: In The 1940s When Autism Was First Delineated - it became evident that the majority of idiots savants were in fact autistic and that the incidence of savantism in the autistic nearly 10 per cent was almost two hundred times its incidence in the retarded population and thousands of times that of the population at large. It became clear that many autistic savants had multiple talents Musical mnemonic visual graphic computational and so on. Sachs 1995 p185

1953: A Musical Savant - from the age of 18 months to just before 3 years sang a remarkable repertoire of music consisting of symphonies by Mozart and Haydn songs by Schubert and Brahms selections from Carmen the Tchaikovsky piano concerto and diversified well known songs. He would also improvise on and vary known melodies. Occasionally the child would sing apparently original tunes. Sherwin 1953

A Legendary Pair of Identical Twin Calendar Calculators - were reported to be able instantaneously identify any given date as a particular day of the week and see up to 20 figure prime numbers without being able to calculate at all. Horwitz 1965. Sachs 1985 pp 185-203

These Gifted and Afflicted Individuals - are the pathologic extreme of that unexplored and paradoxical relationship between genius and insanity. Unless in the unlikely event of this relationship being coincidental the pathogenesis of autism may be in some way be related to the mechanisms which produce genius.

Autism Etiology

1978: The Cause of Autism - now generally accepted to be organic in nature is only known in a minority of cases Autism can be associated with established neurological syndromes such as phenylketonuria hypsarrhythmia or rubella encephalitis usually is not although often there is evidence of brain dysfunction such as seizures and EEG abnormalities. Damasio and Maurer 1978

By Comparing Autistic Syndromes - with similar states where the area of dysfunction is known researchers have been able speculate on which parts or pathways of the brain may be involved. Given that autism is such a diffusely defined clinical entity this task has not been easy and differences of opinion have been inevitable.

1982: Damasio and Maurer Speculated - that the symptoms of autism best correlate with dysfunction of the ring of phylogenetically older cortex located in the mesial aspect of the frontal and temporal lobes and dysfunction in the neostriatum. They noted a deficiency of dopamine may also be a related disturbance Damasio and Maurer 1978 Maurer and Damasio 1982.

1981: Hetzler and Griffin Reviewed The Literature - and suggested that the underlying pathology responsible for the main autistic symptoms may be bilateral temporal lobe dysfunction. They were not convinced by Damasio.

Autism Encephalitis

1978: Maurer's Suggestion That The Dysfunctional Area Extends - beyond the temporal lobe to include the frontal lobe. However despite being able to speculate on areas of dysfunction for particular symptom complexes researchers are unable to find the exact nature of the cause.

1981: The Neurologic Substrate - of this symptom complex is unknown. De Long 1981

1988: The Organic Basis of Autism - must be some subtle less easy to detect variety. Rutter and Schopler 1988

If We Consider The Possibility That a Significant Number of Autistic Cases - may be the result of sub clinical vaccine reactions we would expect that autism is not a new entity but one related to a previous attack of encephalitis a particular form of which sequels of encephalitis lethargica was first studied in detail by von Economo around eighty years ago.

1990: Coulter Wrote Kanner Was Mistaken - in thinking that autism differed markedly and uniquely from anything reported so far While it was much less common in 1943 than it would later become cases could still have been found in the insane asylums and reform schools where they were labeled post-encephalitic syndrome. 1990 p99

This Should Not Be Surprising Given That Encephalitis - is now accepted as a possible cause of autism and encephalitis itself was hardly a new entity.

1978: Evidence That Autism is Associated With Viral Diseases - is already available as autism has been described in patients with congenital rubella measles encephalitis and cytomegalovirus infection itself. Damasio and Maurer 1978

1992: It Is Now Generally Accepted That Autism - is a behavioral syndrome with an underlying organic pathology. It can be associated with a variety of disorders affecting The Central Nervous System such as encephalitis. Ghaziuddin 1992

1995: Autism or Autism Like Syndromes - may develop even in adult life though infrequently especially after certain forms of encephalitis. Sachs 1995 p237

1982: De Long Reported Three Cases - in that striking autistic features developed in previously normal children in the course of an acute encephalopathic illness in clinical evidence was compatible with involvement of function ascribed to a temporal lobe localization.

1965: In Considering Encephalitis As A Possible Cause of Autism - we should keep in mind the heterogeneous nature of both sequelae from encephalitis and the autistic syndrome. We might also consider that if related to vaccination the sequelae may or may not show differences to that expected after a case of post infectious encephalitis and may or may not show some relationship to the type of antigen or antigens administered. On post infectious encephalitis Cecil Butt wrote There is a correlation between the specific infectious agent and the type of encephalitis and even the type of sequelae to be anticipated. 1965 p488

Whatever The Precise Relationship Some Cases of Encephalitic Behavior - described in the historical literature show remarkable similarities to today's autistic states.

1948: Greenebaum and Lurie Described - a particular group of post encephalitic patients Of those who presented psychopathic types of behavior some were phlegmatic and apathetic and apparently indifferent to what was going on around them. They gave the impression of being dull tellectually even though their intelligence quotients as shown on the psychometric tests were normal or above normal. They were asocial and made little effort to enter into group activities. They concentrated poorly and were either unable or unwilling to carry out instructions. The majority of this group however were extremely restless and hyperactive and lacked ability to concentrate. In many instances they were vicious cruel and apparently deliberately abusive to other children. The unpredictability of their behavior was outstanding. Night terrors sleepwalking breathing difficulties food fads and habit tics were frequent complicating symptoms.

1942: Like The Autistic Population Retardation - is a common occurrence among post encephalrtics. From a study group of 34 children suffering from encephalitis. Lurie and Levy 1942 identified six who manrfested progressive mental deterioration. Also like the autishc population post- encephalitics also display a high incidence of neurological signs Of Lurie and Levy's 34 children neurologic findings were present in 25 cases. Nerve deafness occurred in fifteen children and nine children had various forms of speech disturbances Five of six lectroencephalographic tracings were definitely abnormal.

1988: A Feature of Autism - is that children often aquire the condition following a period of normal development. Schain and Yannet 1960 in a study of fifty autistics wrote that most of the parents dated the onset of abnormal behavior during the second year of life.

The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic Criteria For Autism - in the DSM-3 emphasizes the age of onset before thirty months Wing 1988.

The Coincidence of Regression Occurring - from around the time of childhood vaccinations doesn't appear to raise concern although researchers speculate that the neural system and particularly the later stages of neuronal development may be of significance in the cause of autism.

1982: The Common Denominator in The Pathogenesis of Autism - would be the neural system that is affected and rendered dysfunctional. Maurer and Damasio 1982

1982: It Is In The Late Stages of Development - rather than in earlier phases where the neuropathology of autism probably resides. Ciaranello 1982

1994: As Mentioned Above The Depositing of Myelin - around neurons myelination occurs very late in central nervous system development often after birth in most brain regions of the human infant. Ciaranello 1982 The most rapid phase is between 30 weeks prenatally and 6 months post natally. Russell 1994 p343

The Process of Myelination - is therefore well qualified for consideration with regards the late stages of brain development. However despite the known connection between encephalitis and demyelination. and encephalitis being a recognised cause of autism the subject of demyelination does not appear to have been systematically studied with regards its possible involvement with autism.

1982: Ciaranello From Stanford University School of Medicine Noted - that autopsies of children dying from severe rubella infection a known cause of autism show evidence of delayed myelination. They also stated that as it was not known whether those particular children dying of rubella showed evidence of autistic behaviors generalization of these findings to rubella afflicted autistic children was not warranted. They wrote The effect of rubella on myelination does offer intriguing possibilities for speculation however. Impairments of myelination could drastically alter neural communications without necessarily producing either focal neurologic signs or evidence of severe CNS damage. Ciaranello 1982

Autism Vaccination

1960: Despite Encephalitis Being a Known Cause of Autism - and vaccination being a known cause of encephalitis vaccination is rarely examined as a cause of autism. As the possibility that common vaccine reactions might involve The Central Nervous System is never considered by researcher workers in the field of autism likewise rare consider the possibility. Schain and Yannet who in 1960s found a high incidence of seizures among autistics 42% of their study group mentioned vaccination as a possible cause.

They Noted That Encephalitis Had Never Been Diagnosed - nor were there histories of any unusual reactions to the commonly used immunization procedures. They didn't consider sub clinical or common vaccine reactions.

Attention Defecit Hyperactivity Disorder History

1996: Parents Often Report Regression - following the administration of vaccines. These reports are considered by the medical establishment as anecdotal and not to be regarded as Scientific.

Harold Buttram MD an American Doctor Critical of The Vaccination Policy - reported a boy who developed vomiting fever lethargy excessive sleepiness and high pitched screaming following a DPT vaccination.

Following This Reaction - the child ceased to talk and regressed into features of an autistic state.

After It Became Apparent That - his regression was more than a passing phase he was examined by several pediatric neurologists.

Although Other Causes of The Autism - had been ruled out none of the neurologists would confirm the mother's strong opinion that it had been caused by the immunizations.

Of This Case Buttram Wrote - in my opinion there are sound arguments that the vaccines administered at 18 months of age especially the DPT vaccine were responsible for the encephalitis brain inflammation and autism. Buttram 1996

1995: Bernard Rimland Ph D Director of The Autism Research Institute - at San Diego is one worker in the field of autism who believes vaccines must be considered.

His Facility Maintains One of The Largest Databases - on autistic children in The World with over 19000 cases on their files on vaccination as a cause of autism.

Rimland Wrote This Is A Controversial Topic - but it must be considered as a possibility.

There Is Increasing Evidence That Many Autistic Children - became autistic soon after receiving mandatory vaccinations especially with DPT although other vaccines are also under suspicion. 1995

1902: Still Is Generally Credited With The Initial Behavioral Description - corresponding most closely to hyperactivity or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder Walters and Barrett 1993.

He Described The Children as Having Hyperactivity - learning difficulties conduct disorders and poor attention and felt that the etiology was probably organic but that environmental factors might also play a role Weiss 1993.

Still Believed That The Syndrome Stemmed From Defects - in moral control Ross 1976 p15. Weiss 1993 p4 Walters and Barrett 1993.

He Speculated That The General Aim of Behavioral Excess - in these children was self gratification and described more specific characteristics as passionateness spitefulness cruelty jealousy lawlessness dishonesty. wanton mischievousness destructiveness shamelessness immodesty sexual immorality and viciousness Walters and Barrett 1993.

1993: The View That Hyperactive Behavior - was inked to brain damage or central nervous system dysfunction was strengthened following the First World War when an epidemic of encephalitis lethargica was noted to result in behavior disorders in some of its child victims Ross 1976 p15 Walters and Barrett 1993. The children were described in much the same way as Still had earlier described them namely as having hyperactivity impulsivrty antisocial behavior and emotional lability. Weiss 1993 p4 The post World War 1 epidemic of encephalitis lethargica is discussed in more detail above.

1934: Kahn and Cohen Described Children With Hyperactivity - as being organically driven Weiss 1993 p4 Walters and Barrett 1993 and numerous papers appeared after the original report of Kahn and Cohen describing the hyperkinetic or post encephalitic child Levy 1959.

1942: Bender Echoed Kahn and Cohen's Observations - of the post encephalrtic syndrome with hyperkinesis noted as the primary symptom. Walters and Barrett 1993

1930: From The 1930's The Term Minimal Brain Damage - came to be used to describe children with the hyperkinetic or hyperactive child syndrome. Hyperactivity was considered a neurologic sign sufficient to make a diagnosis of brain damage even in the absence of other neurological evidence. In other words brain damage came to be inferred from behavioral signs alone.

1937: Bradley In 1937 Discovered That Benzedrine - an amphetamine had a quieting effect on hyperactive children Ross 1976 p16 Weiss 1993 p4. He noted that a significant proportion of behavior problem children responded to amphetamines by improved school performance or by improved social behavior or both Bradley and Green 1940. By the middle 1960s stimulant medication was well established as the treatment of choice for hyperactive children. Ross 1976 p19

1960: Toward The 1960s The Psychoanalytic Approach - gained ground and parents were sometimes blamed for subtle aberrations in their attitudes and behavior that caused their child's hyperactivity. The fact that many children with hyperactivity and attention deficits did not have either a history or signs of neurologic involvement meant that cultural and psychosocial theories could be advanced without contradicting other evidence.

1962: Conference Held By The Oxford International Study Group - on Child Neurology recommended that the term minimal brain dysfunction replace minimal brain damage the rationale for this change being that brain damage should not be inferred from behavioral signs alone Ross 1976 p18 Weiss 1993 p6. Ultimately the notion of demonstrable or inferred diffuse brain damage was abandoned. Walters and Barrett 1993

1968: The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic - and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders second edition 1968 approached hyperactivity by describing symptoms in behavioral terms rather than including organic findings or speculating about etiology.

1970: The Decade Of The 1970s Marked - a shift in defining characteristics of the syndrome to include inattention By the end of the 1970s the shift in focus to attentional deficits was evident in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders third edition 1980 with hyperactivity identified as a symptom that may or may not be associated with attention deficit disorder as the syndrome was newly titled. Walters and Barrett 1993

1994: The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual - of Mental Disorders fourth edition 1994 calls the syndrome Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder. The Manual also lists three subtypes. These are the combined type the predominantly inattentive type and the predominantly yperactive-impulsive type American Psychiatric Association 1994 p80.

1950: Although Difficult To Quantify - it is generally recognised that the incidence of hyperactivity has risen markedly from around the 1950s.

1972: Chase Wrote During The Past Twenty Years - there has been increasing recognition of children with behavior disorders attentional and perceptual deficits and minor neurological deficits.

1976: Ross Noted That The Prevalence of Hyperactivity - appears to have increased sharply over the last 25 years p63. This rise has also meant an increase in research interest in the syndrome.

It Has Been Estimated That - between 1957 and 1960 31 articles were published in the scientific literature on the hyperactive child syndrome from 1977 to 1980 700 articles were published. Weiss 1993 p7

1993: Today Hyperactivity or Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - is one of the most widely debated disorders of childhood development as well as one of the most common.

Estimates of Prevalence Range - from 2% to 20% of the US school age Population. Walters and Barrett 1993

ADHD and Encephalitis Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms

1994: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - fourth edition states

The Essential Feature of Attention Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder - is a persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity impulsivity that is more frequent and severe than is typically observed in individuals at a comparable level of development. American Psychiat. Assoc. 1994 p78

1994: Associated Features May Include - low frustration tolerance temper outbursts bossiness stubbornness. excessive and frequent insistence that requests be met mood lability demoralization dysphoria rejection by peers and poor selfesteem. Academic achievement is often impaired and devalued typically leading to conflict with the family and school authorities. Inadequate selfapplication to tasks that require sustained effort is often interpreted by others as indicating laziness a poor sense of responsibility and oppositional behavior. Family relationships are often characterized by resentment and antagonism especially because variability in the individual's symptomatic status often leads parents to believe that all the troublesome behavior is willful. Amer. Psychiat. Assoc. 1994 p8081

1987: Although the American Psychiatric Association - prefers to concentrate on the behavioral aspects of the condition the ADHD population is also known to suffer from a higher incidence of soft neurological signs than the general population.

Workers From Other Fields - that might be more familiar with these neurologic signs approach the condition from a different angle.

A Review of The Histories of MBD Children - from the view of a physiotherapist noted that in children diagnosed with Minimal cerebral dysfunction known also as Minimal brain dysfunction the performance of physical activity is affected by minor sensory and motor problems.

In Addition Behavioural and Emotional Difficulties - often develop and in some cases learning difficulties occur. Bullock and Walter 1987

1992: In Keeping With The Immune Dysfunction - and sensitization connection it has been noted that ADHD children have a high incidence of allergic conditions. Pediatric immunologist Doris Rapp 1992. has written on the overlap between allergies and ADHD.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Etiology

1976: The Earliest Scientific Descriptions - of hyperactive children Still 1902 established the fact of etiological subgroups and a variety of medical and psychological conditions characterised by hyperactivity have since been identified. Ross 1976 p61

Some Disorders and Conditions Characterised By Hyperactivity - include metabolic and endocrine disorders toxic conditions such as lead poisoning allergy sensory disorders temperament maturational lag central nervous impairment such as acute encephalitis learned reaction to environmental social stressors psychoneurosis personality disorder and psychosis such as schizophrenia Ross 1976 p7.

Other Possible Etiologic Factors Include - cultural factors educationally related factors first born children disruptive family relationships absent fathers and perinatal events.

1986: Neurologic Etiologies Are Often Investigated - by way of looking at brainbehavior relationships.

These Speculations Are Hazardous - because so much is unknown about the brain and what is known shows an extraordinary complex picture.

Many Functions Are Represented - or rerepresented among quite different structures making it difficult to know which brain sites influence which behavioral events Conners and Wells 1986 p53.

1993: A Range of Neuro Anatomic - and neurophysiological models have provided hypotheses regarding behavioral data. Parts of the brain which have been suggested to be implicated in ADHD include the frontal lobes the caudate nuclei the basal ganglia the mesencephalon the reticular activating system the hypothalamus the mesolimbic mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal pathways the medial septum orbrtofrontal cortex and posterior hippocampus Conners and Wells 1987 LorysVernon 1993.

1993: Many Theories On The Etiology Of ADHD - have focused on a biochemical imbalance of one or more of the neurotransmltters in particular dopamine and norepinephrine. Lorys Vernon 1993

Results Of Magnetic Resonance Imaging MRI Studies Suggest - that the brains of ADHD children do not seem to evidence any significant indices of brain damage Lorys Vernon 1993.

Despite Literally Thousands of Studies Into ADHD - the cause in the mapfrty of cases as well as the increases in incidence are unknown.

1993: The Etiological Bases Of ADHD - are still not definitive or fully understood Numerous hypotheses have been proposed involving specific and nonspecific neural substrata singular neurotransmrtters and combinations thereof as well as environmental psychosocial and biologic factors. The literature is often contradictory and inconsistent. Lorys Vernon 1993

Given That Hyperactivity Is Known As A Typical Sequel To Encephalitis - it seems curious that research into the etiology of ADHD avoids looking for or even mentioning physiologic changes in terms of encephalrtic or inflammatory processes.

ADHD and Encephalitis

Historically Hyperactivity - was thought of in terms of damage to the brain and in particular damage caused by an attack of encephalitis.

As Discussed Above The Post World War 1 Epidemic of Encephalitis Lethargica - or Von Economo's disease or epidemic encephalitis resulted in behavior disorders and in particular motor excitement in some of its child victims.

1927: Age Appears To Play An Important Part - in the incidence of the residua and sequelae of epidemic encephalitis.

Psychomotor Excitement - with or without nocturnal wakefulness and somnolence by day tics choriform movements and disorders of the respiratory rhythm show a preference for the early years of life. Marshall 1927

1942: Lurie and Levy Described a Group - within a larger group of children who were believed to have suffered structural changes to the brain as a result of an attack of pertussis.

The Behaviour of This Group - was of the type that is usually described as postencephalitic.

The Conduct and Personality Changes Form - a typical picture which is easily recognized even in the absence of positive neurologic findings.

The Behaviour of The Children Was Characterized By Hyperactivity - extreme restlessness destructiveness and short attention span. Inhibitions and fear of consequences appeared to be lacking.

Their Conduct Was Both Impulsive - and unpredictable. Lurie and Levy 1942

1948: Greenebaum and Lurie Described - a group of children who suffered from an attack of encephalitis.

The Children - who came under the simple behavioral classification were restless hyperactive and exhibited temper tantrums.

They Were Noisy - and domineering.

Aggressiveness - was an outstanding symptom. Stealing lying and running away were frequent occurrences. Enuresis was often present.

These Children Were Extremely Difficult - to control. Greenebaum and Lurie 1948

1966: Sabatino and Cramblett Described - 14 children who suffered from an attack of California encephalitis virus A cluster analysis of the behavioral sequelae shows these patients to be typically nervous hyperactive restless disruptive distractible easily frustrated tense preoccupiec with self and irritable.

Two of The Children - were reported to be enuretic and 6 had headaches or other somatic symptoms following the illness.

None of The Children Reported These Complaints - before the illness. Sabatino and Cramblett 1966

A Continuum

From These Findings We Can See That Sequels of Encephalitis Include - not only hyperactivity. but also other behavioral syndromes which are associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

In The Search For Causes of ADHD Encephalitis - is rarely considered.

Like Autism - if it is considered it is quickly eliminated because of an assumed lack of a causal factor.

ADHD and Vaccination

Despite The Connection Between ADHD and Encephalitis - and The Connection between Vaccination and Encephalitis any suggestion that increases in the incidence of ADHD may be in any way Related to Vaccination Programs is automatically quashed by The Medical Establishment.

1977: Apart From The Lack of Appropriate Research - in the field of mass vaccine damage it is difficult to find valid grounds for this dismissal. Hyperactivity is a typical sequel of severe reactions.

Professor Gordon Stewart - mentioned a pertussis reaction syndrome. Stewart studied 160 cases of adverse reactions and neurotoxicity following vaccination. Out of 79 cases where the relationship to pertussis vaccine was strong. 65 cases were followed by convulsions hyperkinesis and severe mental defect. Stewart 1977

Hyperkinesia - is abnormally increased motor function hyperactivity

A Continuum

A Point Repeated By Encephalitis Workers - was the variations and combinations of sequelae from encephalitis.

1947: Encephalitis Illustrates - better than any other disease that Changes in The Structure of The Brain may lead to changes in function.

Since The Encephalitic Process - may attack any part of the brain the disorganization of function will correspond to the level or levels of the brain stem involved.

Vegetative Motor or Intellectual Dysfunction - either alone or in combination may be present. Lurie 1947 Greenebaum and Lurie 1948 Levy 1959

1927: On Encephalitis Lethargica Ivy McKenzie Wrote - that there is nothing in the literature of medicine to compare with the phantasmagoria of disorders manifested in the course of this strange malady.

There Is Scarcely a Sign or Symptom of Nervous Derangement - that did not at one time or another make its appearance during the epidemics.

1990: Coulter Wrote That The Variety of Symptoms From Vaccine Damage - is greater than is found in any single individual and that each victim manifests only a part of the overall symptom pattern p250.

He Noted That This Damage Cannot Always Be Categorized - or described with precision despite heroic efforts by the American Psychiatric Association p158.

An Effect of This Complex Categorisation - is that the conditions are seen as being analysed scientifically while the actual causes of these disabilities are in the majority of cases unknown.

Our True Ignorance Is Hidden - in a mountain of scientific literature that for obscure reasons prefers to leave the matter of encephalitis out of the picture.

Apart From The Variety of Symptom Complexes Associated With Encephalitis - we are also faced with the added complexity of varying degrees of severity. What may be pathological behavior with obvious neurological signs in one case might simply appear as peculiar or idiosyncratic behavior when presenting in a milder form.

Obviously When Considering Milder Forms of Post Encephalitic Personalities - we are faced with a large number of confounding environmental and organic factors.

Difficulties In Analysing - or studying lesser degrees of Personality Change from encephalitis does not constitute evidence of their non existence.

1876: It Is of Great Importance To Recognise A Borderland - between sanity and insanity and of greater importance still not resting content with a mere theoretical recognition of it to study carefully the doubtful cases with which it is Peopled. Maudsley 1876 p40

1928: The Possibility Of A Delayed Onset Of Personality Change - should also be kept in mind. On a group of patients suffering from encephalitis lethargica Ziegler wrote In certain cases in that the patients are apparently well chronic sequelae may develop. In one case chronic sequelae developed seven years after the acute attack. Zeigler 1928

Within The Autistic and ADHD Classifications Examined Above - there are wide variations that often overlap with each other and with other diagnostic entities that may in some cases also have their origins in a mild attack of encephalitis. Below I will briefly look at some of these entities and their overlaps with autism and ADHD.

Learning Disabilities and Dyslexia

1990: Children With ADD Risk Developing Specific Learning Disabilities - or developmental dyslexia.

The Correct Terminology Is Dyslexia - for reading problems dysgraphia for writing problems dysphasia for speech and language difficulties and dyscalculia for mathematical difficulties. Serfontein 1990 p73

1985: Schopler Noted That The Boundary of a Well Established Diagnostic Entity - like autism converges with other diagnostic labels - one such convergence occurring for learning disability higher level autism and Asperger's syndrome.

Asperger's Syndrome

1944: First Reported As Autistic Psychopathy By Asperger - in 1944. Asperger's syndrome as it is now known is thought to be a form of high functioning autism or closely related syndrome.

1988: As Ordinarily Diagnosed. Asperger's Syndrome - requires the presence of lack of empathy deviant styles of communication constricted intellectual interests and often idiosyncratic attachments to objects.

The Features All Suggest That The Condition - represents mild autism without associated mental handicap. Rutter and Schopler 1988

1971: Van Krevelen Described The Syndrome - the patient has an abnormal personality with less sensitivity more rationality. His approach is a merely cerebral one.

What He Lacks Is Understanding - of and interaction with other People's feelings.

The Manifestation Age of Autistic Psychopathy - is in the first years of elementary school or earlier if the parents have not been able to adjust themselves to the individualistic behavior of their child in agreement with his attitude toward his environment he is unable to learn from others.

The Child Follows - his own methods because he cannot accept instruction from the teacher. His intelligence may enable him to find original solutions.

Because of This - he is an unsatisfactory student.

Another Peculiarity Concerns - a tendency to foster rather unusual circumscribed interest patterns such as genealogy or astronomy or life in the abstract. Van Krevelen 1971

1971: Deviant Language Development - is a feature in many cases opinions vary as to its time of arrival. It must be pointed out that the autistic psychopath begins to talk at a very young age even sooner than he Is able to walk. Van Krevelen 1971

1992: There Is Often A History of Relatively Late Development - of language followed by the emergence of perfect language skills appropriate for an adult rather than for a young child. Gillberg and Coleman 1992 p45

Might Mild Cases - lie somewhere in the grey borderlands between sanity and insanity ? Gillberg and Coleman 1992 wrote It should be clear that many people with Asperger's syndrome never come to the attention of psychiatrists or psychologists.

They May Be Regarded As Odd - and even aloof but they are not perceived as psychiatrically abnormal. p49


1992: The Condition Has Only in The Last Couple of Decades - become widely known and many older cases received a variety of diagnoses.

Old Labels In The Field Include - borderline borderline psychosis autistic traits minimal brain dysfunction and occasionally even conduct disorder.

Atypical Schizoid and Schizotypal - are other labels employed by certain groups. Gillberg and Coleman 1992 p49

1943: Schizophrenia Kanner Regarded Autism - as an early form of schizophrenia Lewis and Van Ferney 1960 and the relationship between the two has been discussed ever since. Like autistics schizophrenics often have problems with interpersonal relationships.

1994: Schizophrenics Do Not as Popular Myth Holds - have split personalities.

The Disease Causes A Wider Fragmentation of Their Intellect - and social selves attacking the very qualities that make us human. Schizophrenics often have difficulty communicating in language or facial expression and are unable to put themselves in someone else's shoes or to judge other's intentions towards them. Brown 1994

1993: Despite Evidence Supporting Discontinuity Between Autistic Disorder - and schizophrenia increasing numbers of patients with coexisting autistic disorder and schizophrenia like psychosis have been described some investigators have reported an association between past history of autistic symptoms and present diagnosis of schizophrenia. Sverd and Montero 1993

1995: Autistic Disorder and Schizotypal Personality Disorder - along with schizophrenia and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified fall into a group of disorders recently characterized as social communication spectrum disorders.

Although There Are Some Clear Differences - between the disorders notably the age of onset the distinction between them is problematic both clinically and theoretically. Baltaxe 1995

1988: According To Some Investigators The Diagnosis of Schizoid Disorder - clearly includes cases that would be diagnosed by others as Asperger's syndrome Rutter and Schopler 1988.

1994: Like Autism Schizophrenia - is also thought to have a biologic substrate.

Although Schizophrenia Has Been Traditionally Labeled - as a psychiatric disorder most patients with schizophrenia exhibit neurological symptoms that suggest the presence of brain damage. Carlson 1994 p549

1994: Biochemical Findings Have Suggested That Autoimmune Factors - might be implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia. Levine 1994

1948: The Post World War 1 Influenza Epidemic - and the associated epidemic of encephalitis lethargica produced illnesses that resembled schizophrenia. Carlson 1994 p550 Greenebaum and Lurie 1948 noted thai some of their post encephalitic cases experienced hallucinatory phenomena and had been diagnosed as schizophrenia.

Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

1990: A Subversion of Free Will By Obsessions - and compulsions may be yet another facet of the post encephalitic syndrome. Von Economo. in writing on encephalitis lethargica patients considered changes in the complex function of will and intentionality Rapoport 1990 p89.

1996: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder OCD - recently been characterized as a hidden epidemic March and Leonard 1996.

1990: A Form of The Disorder Stereotyped and Repetitive Behavior - was considered an essential common characteristic in Kanner's 1943 original description of autistic children. It has since been suggested that compulsive behavior can be readily observed in every child with a clear cut diagnosis of autism McDougte 1990.

1996: The Diagnosis of OCD - is not exclusionary. Tic disorders anxiety disorders the disruptive behavior disorders and learning disorders are common. March and Leonard 1996

1994: Obsessive Compulsive Disorder - is related to Tourette's syndrome a neurological disorder characterized by tics and strange verbaitzattons It can also be caused by brain damage at birth encephalitis and head injuries. Carlson 1994 p576

1996: Eating Disorders Such as Anorexia Nervosa - are frequently considered a form of obsessive or compulsive behavior. Several disorders that have childhood onset share the phenomena of obsessional thoughts and ideas as well as compulsive rituals and behaviors.

These Disorders May Co Occur - as well as precede and overlap with one another and include obsessive-compulsive disorder Tourette's disorder pervasive developmental disorder and anorexia nervosa. Fisman 1996

Tourette's Syndrome

1885: Tourette's Syndrome Was First Clinically Delineated - in 1885 when Georges Gilles de la Tourette a young French neurologist put together an historical account with observations of some of his own patients.

The Syndrome - as he described it was characterized above all by convulsive tics by involuntary mimicry or repetition of other's words or actions and by the involuntary or compulsive utterances of curses and obscenities.

Some Individuals Showed An Odd Insouciance - or nonchalance some a tendency to make strange often witty occasionally dreamlike associations some extreme impulsiveness and provocativeness a constant testing of physical and social boundaries some a constant restless reacting to the environment a lunging at and sniffing of everything or a sudden flinging of objects and yet others an extreme stereotypy and obsessiveness no two patients were ever quite the same. Sachs 1995 p73

1940: Tourette's Syndrome Initially Was Studied - in the context of the hysterias and choreas toward the end of the nineteenth century. It was later approached from the perspective of psychoanalytic theories of character obsessive compulsive neurosis and narcissism in the 1940s.

1994: Once Thought To Be A Rare Condition - prevalence of Tourette's syndrome is now estimated to be one case per thousand boys and one case per 10000 girls.

Milder Variants - are likely to occur in a sizable percentage of the pediatric population.' Cohen and Leckman 1994

1993: Tourette's Syndrome GTS - is of interest in this discussion because of its many associations with disorders already examined. A large percentage of GTS patients have problems with attention impulsivity and hyperactivity. In addition GTS patients often have other learning and behavioral difficulties. Pauls 1993

1995: A Large Proportion - up to 50% of clinically referred children with Tourette's syndrome meet criteria for comorbid attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Chappell 1995

1994: Tourette's Syndrome Is A Chronic Familial Disorder - that is characterized by motor and phonic tics that wax and wane in severity and an array of behavioral and emotional problems including some forms of obsessive convulsive disorder at times Tourette's syndrome has been described as an expression of OCD and at other times OCD has been conceptualized as a variant of Tourette's syndrome. Coher and Leckman 1994

1993: Sverd and Gurevich Reviewed Evidence - that suggested that there exists a subgroup of autistic children who are at risk for the development of schizophrenia symptoms and that Tourette's syndrome may underlie coexistence of the disorders in some patients Sverd Gurevich 1993.

Hereditary Predisposition Depression and Mania

1996: Depression and Mania - are frequently observed among the ranks of autistics and those with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. High rates of conduct or oppositional defiant disorder anxiety disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder have been reported among juveniles with major depression Biederman 1996.

1996: Kerbeshian and Burd Examined - four patients who had diagnoses of Tourette's syndrome autistic disorder and bipolar disorder and concluded that common etiological factors may be involved in a greater than chance concurrence of these conditions. Bipolar disorder is a cyclic disturbance of mood which Is characterized by the presence of a manic episode.

1996: It Has Been Hypothesized That Manic Depressive Symptomatology - is an integral part of Tourette's syndrome and is common in patients who have Tourette's syndrome Kerbeshian and Burd 1996.

1940: Gershon and Rieder Noted That Rates of Major Depression - in every age group have steadily increased in several of The Developed Countries since the 1940s and that rates of depression mania and suicide continue to rise as each new birth cohort ages a Pattern that Harbors Ominous Public Health Consequences.

They Pointed Out That The Environmental Factors - that was responsible for these rises remains a mystery.

Left Handedness and Ambi Dexterity

1986: Autistic Patients Show A Striking Shift Away - from the normal incidence of Right Handedness in the normal Population. Soper 1986 examined an unselected sample of 79 children and adult autistic subjects.

The Study Found - 44% 33 patients showed manifest Right Handedness 22% 17 patients showed mixed handedness and 36% 29 patients showed manifest Left Handedness.

The Normal Population Shows - approximately 90% incidence of Right Handedness and 10% incidence of Left Handedness.

1994: Where There Is Neurological Pathology - as in autism or mental retardation and/or epilepsy such as is linked to cerebral palsy there appears to be a Decrease in Right Handedness. Russell 1994 p75

1972: Left Handedness or Ambidexterity - is common in children with developmental dyslexia Chase 1972.

1982: Geschwind and Behan Reported An Association Between Left Handedness - migraine and learning disorder.

They Wrote That The Most Surprising Finding In Their Study - was the markedly elevated frequency of immune disorders in Left Handers and in their relatives as compared to the rates in Right Handers and their families.

1994: Impaired Maturation Of or Damage To Intercommunicating or Callosal Fibres - between both sides of the brain has been postulated as a factor in the decrease in right-handedness Russell 1994 p75.

1995: Given That These Callosal Fibres From The Corpus Callosum - may be one of the latest fibre tracts in The Central Nervous System to be myelinated Schlaug 1995.

An Encephalomyelrtis During The Early Developmental Stages - might be a contributing factor in a decrease in Right Handedness.

Gender Differences - a finding of the early workers with post-encephalitic patients was that males were more vulnerable to the effects of personality change. Lurie 1947 found the ratio of boys to girls in their study was almost three and a half to one.

Of This Ratio They Wrote This Would Appear - to agree with the findings of other investigators namely that boys appear to be more apt to show post-encephalitic type of behavior and personality changes than girls. Greenebaum and Lurie's 1948 study on post encephalitic patients reported a ratio of boys to girls of more than four and a half to one.

1959: Showing A More Even Distribution Levy's Study Reported - a ratio of around two and a half to one. In keeping with these proportions we find that the ratio of boys to girls with autism occurs with a ratio of three or four to one Rirtter and Schopler 1988.

Michael Rutter - a well known authority on autism stated that the meaning of this sex difference remains totally obscure 1996.

1996: Epidemiological Samples of Children With ADD Show - a ratio of four to one Cantwell 1996 and dyslexic children show a ratio of four to one Chase 1972.

1996: An Exception To This Ratio Is Obsessive Compulsive Disorder - recent figures show no gender difference Carson 1992 p189.

Boys - are more likely to have prepubertal onset while girls are more likely to have obsessive compulsive disorder start during adolescence March and Leonard 1996.

1996: When We Look For Other Differences Between The Sexes - we find that autistic girls are on average more seriously impaired on almost every ability than boys Frith 1989 p53 while autistic idiot savants are very largely male Rutter 1996.

1993: A Condition With Autistic Features - and in that victims are female and mentally retarded is Rett syndrome first described in 1966 by Andreas Rett a pediatrician at the University of Vienna Hagberg 1993.

1994: The Condition Is Characterised By A Regression of Behavioral Social - and cognitive skills after a seemingly normal first 6 to 18 months of life Woodyatt and Ozanne 1994.

1992: Characteristic Features Include The Development of Stereotypic Hand Movements - severely impaired language skills severe psychomotor retardation and autistic-like loss of social skills Woodyatt and Ozannne 1994. Tsai 1992.

1993: The genetic basis for Rett syndrome - is indisputable Hagberg 1993.

1993: Hereditary Predisposition - A wide range of studies using different methodologies have found that there is a family clustering of the different neurological disorders discussed above.

Some of These Methods Involve Comparing Adoptive - and biological parents of cases adopted in infancy and comparing identical and fraternal twins.

Traditional Quantitative Genetic Studies Using Twin - and family designs have provided sufficient evidence to indicate that autism has a strong genetic component. Rutter 1996.

During The Seventies Studies Demonstrated A Genetic Component To Hyperactivity - with a higher incidence of psychiatric disturbance shown in biological parents compared to adoptive parents Walters and Barrett 1993.

Positive Family History of ADHD Symptoms - in close family members is commonly found in children with ADHD. Lorys Vemon 1993

1987: Bullock and Walter Found The Percentage of Adopted Children - with minimal brain dysfunction was an incredible 19 times that of the general population. This is suggestive of impulse control problems with the biological parents.

1992: On Asperger's Syndrome Gillberg and Coleman Wrote That - quite a number of clinical studies implicate a strong genetic component with at least 50 percent of affected cases having a close relative with Asperger syndrome or something very similar.

1994: During The Past Several Years Twin and Family Genetic Studies - have clearly revealed Tourette's syndrome to be familial and genetic. Cohen and Leckman 1994.

1982: There Is Also Genetic Predisposition Within Families - to dyslexia Geschwind 1982.

Psychopathic Behaviour

A Genetic Predisposition To Schizophrenia - has been demonstrated since early this century when genetic studies showed that both schizophrenia and manic depressive illness ran in families Gershon and Rieder 1992.

On The Results of Twin Studies On Schizophrenia Gershon and Rieder Wrote The Risk - of illness rises with increasing similarity but even a perfect identity of genes does not produce a perfect correspondence.

Some Environmental Factors or Interaction of Genes - with the environment must therefore push susceptible people over the threshold of illness.

Might An Allergic Encephalomyelttis In Infancy - be the factor causes genetically susceptible people to react in different ways?

1989: Susceptibility To An Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis EAE - has been shown to be under genetic control Abramsky and Steiner 1989.

1968: Behan Found Atopic Histories To Be Common In Patients - with primary demyelinative disorders and noted that familial clustering of such demyelinating disorders had been reported.

1974: Atopic Means Hypersensitive - due to hereditary influences. Kulenkampff in 1974 echoed the common view that an idiosyncratic response was involved in vaccine reactions.

1982: Steinman In An Animal Study Demonstrated A Genetic Predisposition - to the development of a pertussis vaccine encephalopathy.

If This Predisposition Extends To The Way - that a child reacts one would expect some genetic links between various post-encephalitic conditions.

Violence - a high level of violent crime is an issue of deep concern in modern society. Factors such as family breakdown poverty overcrowding unemployment inequitable class structures racial discrimination availability of weapons and media violence are often cited as causal or contributing factors.

1985: The Annual Murder Rate In The United States Increased - from an already comparatively high 5 per 100000 people in 1960 to 10 per 100000 people in 1980. Other forms of interpersonal violence such as rape and child abuse have increased even faster than the murder rate. Despite a few hints at the predisposing factors to violence at present there is no good explanation for the widespread prevalence of violence in our society. Liberals tell you the cause is poverty conservatives blame permissiveness. Both explanations are inadequate. Check 1985

1983: Frank Elliott Professor Emeritus of Neurology University of Pennsylvania Wrote - on explosive violence This condition episodic dyscontrol is often associated with physical disorders of the brain.

Explosive Violence - is seen from time to time in the major psychoses as well as in so called borderline syndromes and atypical schizophrenia. It is a fairly common result of developmental and acquired disorders of the brain dating from infancy and collectively known as minimal brain dysfunction. 1983

Children With Minimal Brain Dysfunction or Hyperactivrty - are often known for their aggressive and disruptive behaviour.

1993: Hyperactivity and Conduct Disorder - are the two major externalizing or troublesome disorders of childhood. It is well documented that there is a high level of overlap of the order of 50% or more. between these two disorders. Sanson etal 1993

These Children Grow Older - and studies point ominously toward the effect that these adults will have on Society.

1996: Hyperactivity In Childhood - is a known risk factor for ^psychosocial maladjustment in adolescence.

Several Studies Have Followed School Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder - for periods of 4 to 14 years and all have found that they show. by comparison with normal controls a higher rate of disruptive behavior disorders.

The Major Risk In All These Studies Is For Aggressive - and antisocial behavior and delinquency. Taylor 1996

A Neurologic Basis For Violence Exists In The Literature - but is seldom discussed in The Broader Community.

Known Connections Such As Abnormal EEGs - in the criminal Population and the Historical Relationship between violence and epilepsy are present but not accounted for.

The Aversion To Discussing Violence In Terms Of Brain Damage - comes from dilemmas with responsibility and punishment as well as a politically correct Society because of the spectre of Behavioral Control disapproves of talk of criminal genetics or a criminal class. Some feel that violence may be the price to pay for freedom.

Despite Post Encephalitics Being Known For Aggressive - and violent behavior contemporary research into violence and criminality does not consider encephalitis when searching for causal factors.

Psychopathic Behavior - serial killings mass murders and other tragedies involving the slaughter of innocents have criminologists and behavioural scientists pondering the nature and origins of the psychopathic personality.

1982: Frank Elliott Described The Psychopath - as follows Most of these people appear normal and some are charming and even charismatic. They are not insane and delusions and other signs of irrational thinking are absent though at times their behavior is far from sensible. Many are intelligent and some achieve distinction but behind this mask there are grave defects of the personality. They are egocentric and lack the capacity to feel empathy and love. They have little or no conscience or sense of guilt and tend to project blame when they get into trouble. As a result of their lack of empathy they are unresponsive in personal relationships and their sex life is impersonal casual and sometimes grossly perverted especially under the influence of alcohol. Violence when it occurs is apt to be cold casual and callous and sometimes involves acts of unimaginable savagery. All these symptoms are not necessarily present in every case. On the contrary partial psychopaths are more common than the classica core psychopath sometimes called an anethopath because of a complete absence of the capacity to feel emotion. When observing the lives of these individuals whose appearance and conversation are so sane and whose actions are so otter destructive a nineteenth century term for the condition moral insanity seems particularly apt. It is difficult for man to realize that moral shortcomings can arise as a result of brain damage. Yet such is the case. It can appear for the first time following a recognized brain insult such as encephalitis or a serious head injury especially in children. Elliott 1982

1927: Encephalitis Lethargica Was Notorious For The Changes In Moral Character - it induced in some of its child victims Marshall 1927 wrote about victims of this epidemic The moral aspect of his behaviour has been emphasized naturally enough as it is his apparent disregard of all moral considerations that makes him impossible at home at school or in the sick ward and many have professed to see in this an absence a numbing or a perversion of his moral sense.

1996: This Moral Insanity - is seen in an extreme form in autistic states. It is thought that children with autism cannot represent the mental states of others their thoughts beliefs wishes and desires.

The Child With Autism May Not Process - as moral those transgressions that require an individual to represent the mental state of another in order to realize that the other is a victim. Blair 1996

The Radical Alienation of The Autistic - is to be seen rr milder forms in the psychopathic criminal who like autistic lacks empathy for fellow humans being able to t them as objects. Psychopathy like autism is & developmental disorder associated with a lack of empa Adult psychopaths do not show arousal to the distress

1996: Post Modernist Society - others and do not make the moral/conventional distinction. Blair 1996

1996: The Case of Martin Bryant - who in 1996 murdered 35 people at Port Arthur Tasmania is of interest in this discussion on sociopathic behavior. Bryant exhibits an absence of empathy and has many characteristics which are suggestive of post encephalitic behaviour.

1996: 9 Nov That Bryant Was Disturbed From Childhood - was evident from his mother's description of an obsessive compulsive disorder and hyperactivity. He had a thing about cleanliness and even as a little boy I wasn't allowed to cut him a piece of cake and touch it with my fingers in case I put germs on it. Fanatic he was. And he was always cleaning his teeth and buying toothbrushes and showering. Mrs Bryant says her son began receiving treatment for his mental condition as a five-year-old in his first year at school. He had such bad behaviour in the classroom. He was so hyperactive he couldn't concentrate for any length of time to do anything and therefore he was disrupting everybody in the classroom. Mrs Bryant said her son had been diagnosed as a schizophrenic while still a small child by one of Australia's top psychiatrists The Courier Mail 9 Nov 1996.

1996: 21 Nov Bryant's Defense Lawyer Mr John Avery - described Bryant as a man who took delight and gained excitement from tormenting others The Australian 21 Nov 1996. The judge said he accepted that Bryant had a borderline intellectual disability and a personality disorder that left a terrible gap in his sensibilities making him unable to empathise with other people but able to contemplate and carry out mass destruction. The Sydney Morn. Herald 23 Nov 1996 Forensic psychiatrist. Professor Mullen and the Crown's forensic psychiatrist Dr lan Sale agreed that Bryant was not mentally ill but that he was grossly disturbed from childhood The Australian 21 Nov. 1996. How real is this distinction between being grossly disturbed and mentally ill?

1996: 21 Nov The Crown's Forensic Psychiatrist Dr Sale - contended that Bryant suffered the semi-autistic Asperger's syndrome The Australian 21 Nov. 1996. This diagnosis would fit the peculiar mind of Bryant.

1992: The Type of Criminal Offence Sometimes Encountered - in adolescents and adults with Asperger syndrome is usually connected with extreme obsession. It could be anything from poisoning and other variants of 'experimental killing' and arson to bizarre violence. Gillberg and Coleman 1992 p50

The Possibility Of A Post Encephalitic Behaviour Disorder - with or without any connection with vaccination has not been raised in Bryant's case. This total lack of consideration given to post encephalitic behaviour disorders in today's society is despite encephalitis being a known cause of changes to moral character.

1975: JN Walton Professor of Neurology - and Dean of Medicine at the University of Newcastle upon Tyne England wrote Psychopaths are persons who though not insane or mentally defective behave in a socially abnormal manner. This appears to be a constitutional defect of personality in that genetic influences play a considerable part. That structural abnormalities of the brain cannot be entirely excluded as a possible cause of psychopathy is indicated by the fact that similar defects of moral sense can occur as a sequel of encephalitis lethargica Walton 1975 p129

If As Appears Likely The High Number of Crazies In Todays Society - are a consequence of vaccination programs even with suspending those programs today the effects will still be felt for the next half century and more.

1990: Post Modernist Society - while obviously only a small minority of children with ADHD or Asperger's syndrome with turn out to be violent criminals or psychopathic killers there still remains the question of lesser changes to the psyche and the broader effects of a post encephalitic Population on Society.

Coulter Wrote The Effects Of Vaccination Have Altered - the very tone and atmosphere of modern society.

Because These Changes Are So Insidious - and widespread and because we lack perspective they have been largely overlooked. 1990 pxiv

1960: Following The Emergence of Autism During The Forties - and ADHD during the fifties the first generation of post encephalitics began reaching adulthood during the 1960s.

The 1960s and 1970s - was a time of many changes in fundamental aspects of Western Societies.

The Possibility Of An Organic Basis For These Changes - is an idea that many would reject.

If These Changes Are Considered In The Light Of Known Personality Changes From Encephalitis - the idea becomes a proposition to be examined at least in terms of being a possible contributing factor.

Alcoholism - and widespread usage of a variety of other mind altering substances may be linked to the boredom and impulse control problems that come with having an attention deficit disorder.

The Selfishness of The Autistic From The Greek - auto meaning self in milder forms may result in high divorce rates and an increase in the proportion of single parent families.

Increases In Forms Of Inter Personal Violence - such as assault rape child abuse and homicide have been mentioned above.

Rises In Suicide May Be The Consequence - of an increased number of depressed and alienated post encephalitics in society.

1990: The Results of These Behavioural Changes - further compound the negative effects on society.

Alcoholism and Drug Abuse Contribute - to family breakdown and social violence.

Hyperactive Parents Have Little Patience - with their hyperactive offspring.

Abused Children - are more likely to abuse when adults.

Children Bought Up In Single Parent Families - may be more likely to contribute to delinquency.

Coulter Noted It Is Not Easy To Discern - the outlines of the incubus that the vaccination program has loosed upon us. 1990 pxiv

1960: The Generational Conflict and Radicalism - of the 1960s may be another aspect of post encephalitic behavioural changes.

Even Keeping In Mind The Historically Constant Struggle Of The Generations - the 1960s is still widely recognised as a unique time of change in post industrial revolution history. This was maybe more in evidence to observers at the time.

1968: It Strikes Me As Obvious Beyond Dispute - that the interests of the college age and adolescent young in the psychology of alienation oriental mysticism psychedelic drugs and communitarian experiments comprise a cultural constellation that radically diverges from values and assumptions that have been in the mainstream of our society at least since the Scientific Revolution of the seventeenth century. Roszak 1968 p xii

1970: A Diversity of Seemingly Disparate Problems - and social phenomena are in actuality interlinked and may profitably be viewed as manifestations of a more fundamental occurrence of vast social and historical proportions.

These Include - antiwar demonstrations ecological activism black brown red power movements student political activism instability of the economic system civil rights movements extremist bombings drug use and abuse interest in the occult religious movements the human potential movement sexual liberation movements antiscientism hippie communes and sensitivity training.

This Underlying Phenomenon Is Analogous To The Protestant Reformation - in its relation to a rapid shift in previously unquestioned cultural premises and in its pervasiveness in impinging upon every aspect of social institutions and customs. Harmon 1970

1960's: A Host of Factors Undoubtedly Contributed Toward The Happenings - and changes of the 1960s.

Some Factors That Have Been Suggested Are A Higher Proportion of The Population - being of adolescent or young adult age. a post World War 2 expansion of educational opportunities and parental 'spoiling' of the young.

Conclusions - some try to explain the youth protest of the 1960s as a morbid symptom as a romantic reaction to the technological advancement as a sign pointing to the degeneration and deterioration of Western Civilization and so on. Nov 1970

Calling Encephalitis In For Consideration May - go some way to explain this protest.

The Rationalism or Intellectualism of The Asperger's - may be seen in milder forms in the younger generation's contempt of their elder's acceptance of the status quo.

The Romantic Reaction May Involve Creativity Achievement - and even genius elements which sometimes feature in the post-encephalitic conditions discussed above.

1990: Studies Have Shown A Large Proportion of Hyperactive Children - go on to develop Type A personalities as adults.

These Are The People Who Are Always Busy Active - and on the go achieving or overachieving.

There Is Little Doubt That They Are Among The Doers In The World - rather than the watchers. Serfontein 1990 p148149

1994: Popular Books and Lectures About ADHD - often point out positive aspects of the condition.

To Promote The Positive Side Some Support Groups - in the United States circulate lists of illustrious figures who they contend probably suffered from the disorder Benjamin Franklin Churchill Socrates Isaac Newton da Vinci almost any genius of note. Wallis 1994

1982: I Need Only Point Out The Names Of Thomas Edison - and Albert Einstein to make it clear that dyslexics do not merely succeed in making a marginal adjustment in some instances that they rank high among those who have created the very fabric of Our Modern World many dyslexics have superior talents in certain areas of non verbal skill such as art architecture engineering and athletics.

Evidence Is Now Accumulating That Shows That These Very Talents Exist - in High Rates among The Left Handed and Ambidextrous. Geschwind 1982

1992: With A Disorder Like Tourette's Syndrome Especially - in its phantasmagoric form one may have the rather rare situation of a biological condition becoming creative or becoming an integral part of the identity and creativity of an individual. Sachs 1992

1992: Although Schizophrenia and Manic Depression - can devastate patient's lives the disorders do not preclude the performance of highly creative work.

Manic Depressive Illness Often Occurs In Conjunction With Extraordinary Talent - even genius in politics and military leadership as well as in literature and music and the other performing arts. Gershon and Rieder 1992

1983: Some Psychopaths Achieve Positions of Leadership In Politics - labor unions business and entertainment and a few called creative psychopaths achieve fame in the arts because of unusual gifts to some extent blind the public to their behavior. Elliott 1983

Mention Has Already Been Made of The Autistic Savant - cases of exceptional memorizing arithmetical artistic and imitative abilities are sometimes encountered.

Musical Ability.Is The Most Frequently Exhibited Skill - among savants. Young and Nettelbeck 1995

What Is The Effect Of Milder Forms Of Creativity Savantism - and genius throughout The Population ?

1990: The 1960s Is Of Course Legendary As A Time Of A Musical - and artistic renaissance.

Encephalitis Explains The Paradox of The Sometimes Creative - and intellectual pursuits of post modernist generations contrasted against common defects in personality.

Of These Defects Coulter Wrote Any Analysis of 1960s Radicalism - at once discloses the themes of the post encephalitic syndrome.

For Example Roots of Radicalism By Stanley Rothman - and S Robert Lichter touches upon ego weakness feelings of worthlessness childish egotism impulsive violence impatience narcissism nazi ism The Need To Be In Control Megalomania Alienation lack of meaning rage paranoia ambivalent hostility to authority unfocussed aggression the search for experience and sensation inability to form intimate relations combined with sexual licentiousness anxiety depression pyromania sociopathy alcoholism and drug abuse. Coulter 1990 p254

Many May Argue That These Characteristics Were An Inevitable Consequence Of Social Forces - and technological change.

While Such Factors Undoubtedly Play Various Roles - they are not necessarily exclusive.

Injecting Infants At A Young Age and On A Mass Scale - with a Powerful neuro antigen may have had as its Consequence Fundamental Changes to Human Behavior also on a Mass Scale.

The Increasing Number of Alienated Individuals In Society - the widespread use of mind altering drugs the disintegration of the family and increases in inter personal violence delinquency and sociopathic behaviour are features of our modern society which were not envisioned by previous generations looking to the future.

There Appears Absolutely No Reason Why Vaccination Should Not Be Considered - as a contributing factor in the behavioral characteristics of post modernist society.

The Reality Of The Belief That The Benefits of Vaccination Far Outweigh The Risks - may in fact be the exact opposite.


That Childhood Vaccinations May Be Responsible For A Disaster - of such Magnitude is not an acceptable proposition to current frames of thought.

Resistance Comes From A Preconceived View Of Our Society - that holds that with our state of knowledge and level of scientific understanding such a disaster would not be possible.

The Reality That Does Not Seem To Have Been Fully Appreciated By The Guardians - of Our Nation's Health is taking a baby for its first triple antigen injection weighing around 5 thousand grams and injecting it with a mixture of not more than 20 billion killed organisms of B pertussis diphtheria toxoids tetanus toxoids thiomersal and aluminium phosphate.

This Is Not Some Innocuous Mixture - the package insert warns that the injection technique may contribute to the severity of local reactions including abscess formation at the injection site as a result of the antigen seeding the needle track CSL 1993.

If That Is The Effect Of The Vaccine Near The Surface - what does it do to the whole organism and what evidence is there that so called systemic reactions do not involve The Central Nervous System ?

When One Looks For A Science Dealing With Vaccine Reactions - one may find complex statistical analyses looking for severe damage and based on seemingly arbitrary case selection criterion but few experimental studies and little discussion on the biologic mechanisms behind common reactions.

When One Looks At Experimental Studies On The Pertussis Vaccine's Biologic Properties - eg Low 1955 Levine 1966 Steinam 1982 one's fears are exceeded in that not only is there clear cause for alarm but in the realisation that this knowledge has somehow been overlooked.

Despite Hundreds of Studies Relating To Vaccines The Best The Medical Establishment - comes up with is that there is a surprising lack of specific information related to the cause of both common and severe vaccine reactions. Cherry 1988 p967

A Disturbing Lack Of Information - might be closer to the mark.

The Science That Declares Vaccines To Be Safe Despite - these basic unknowns is hailed as truth and dissenting opinions are dismissed not by reason but by the fact that they do not agree with or support the loudest voices

The Vaunted Peer Review System - is merely a barrier ensuring that ideas departing from received truths we have a rough passage to the pages of scholarly publications

The Appeal To Science In Modem Rationalism - is an appeal to a Professional Consensus. No objective scientific criteria.

The Expert - is merely an expert in his colleague's opinions. Coulter 1994

1984: Science - is clearly one of the outstanding achievements of Humanity but like any other Great Accomplishment it suffers the risk of being distorted by the failings of Human Beings. Geschwind 1984

The Sciences Dealing With Vaccinations and Their Effects On The Human Immune and Neurological Systems - is not Science.

It Is A Dogma - insulated from having to properly investigate even the most basic biological effects of vaccines.

The Most Fundamental Flaw of This Dogma - has to do with the principle that vaccines induce the immune response without causing symptoms of the disease.

The Feared Post Infectious Encephalomyelitis - is caused by the immune response the same immune response that we provoke with vaccines Incredibly despite the resemblance of vaccine reactions to encephalitis and a theoretical basis for expecting that lymphocytes most particularly those stimulated by B pertussis may enter The Central Nervous System and hence cause an inflammation the strong probability that common vaccine reactions involve the brain is somehow avoided.

That Vaccine Damage Will Result In Severe Disability - or not at all is an unfounded assumption behind vaccine research That only severe reactions may result in neurological changes is also an unfounded assumption and one at odds with the writings on post encephalitic behavior

1933: No Definite Opinion Can Be Expressed - until the lapse of some years as to whether an attack of encephalitis however mild in appearance may or may not result in serious sequelae The Lancet 1933

A Lapse of Some Years Until Behavioral Abnormalities Are Evident - is where changes caused by vaccinations should be studied.

True Case Control Studies Should Compare Characteristics of Groups Vaccinated - with xx vaccinated children.

Other Studies Should Examine Carticular Conditions - such as autism ADHD and even psychopathy and compare vaccination histories with controls.

That These Forms Of Study Have Not Been Undertaken Is An Indictment - of the medical establishment's negligence in properly researching potential side effects of vaccination.

It Is This Medical Establishment - that is now laying claim to our children on the basis of what they have chosen to define as science.

Sweden's Experience Where Pertussis Vaccination - was suspended without increases in the very low death rate from pertussis in that country shows the medical establishment's claims of deadly epidemics if we don't lift vaccination rates to be questionable.

Given The Unknown Nature Of The Biological Mechanisms Of Vaccine Reactions - and unrefuted evidence documenting widespread brain damage from vaccines Coulter 1990.

The Current Moves In Australia To Deny Parents The Right To An Informed Choice - on vaccination may in fact Constitute a Criminal Assault.

Although This May Appear An Extreme Viewpoint The Circumstances - of the medical establishment's ignoring without reason or evidence of questioning the safety of vaccines and aggressive actions in suppressing debate leaves one with few options but to call it how It is.

It Is My Opinion That The Effects Of Compulsory Vaccination - will be to continue and Intensify the gradual deconstruction of Human Society as we know it.

I Believe That Vaccination Is A Critical Issue - not just to young Parents but to all Citizens Concerned for Our Ultimate Survival.

Greg Wilson - April 1997. This paper may be photocopied.

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Strom J Nov 1967 Further Experience of Reactions Especially of a Cerebral Nature in Conjunction with Triple Vaccination A Study Based on Vaccinations in Sweden 1969-65 Brit Med Joum pp 320-323 Sutherland JM 1963 Encephalopathy Following Diphtheria Pertussis Inoculation Arch Disease in Childhood 28:149 pp149-150 Sverd J Montero G 1993 Brief Report Cases for an Association Between Tourette Syndrome Autistic Disorder and Schizophrenia Like Disorder Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 23 2 pp 407-413 Taylor E Chadwick 0 Heptinstall E Danckaerts M 1996 Hyperactivity and Conduct Problems as Risk Factors for Adolescent Development Joum Amer Acad Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 35:9 pp 1213-1226 Toomey J 1949 Reactions to Pertussis Vaccine Joum Amer Med Assoc 139:7 pp 448-450 Treffert DA 1968 The Idiot Savant: A Review of the Syndrome American Joum Psychiatry 145:5 pp 563-572 Trollfors B Rabo E Sept 1961 Whooping Cough in Adults Brit Med Joum 283 pp 696-697 Tsai LY 1992 Is Rett Syndrome a Subtype of Pervasive Developmental Disorders? Joum Autism and Developmental Disorders 22:4 pp 551-561 Tsattas MO 1966 A Pilot Study on Allergic Responses Letter Joum Autism and Developmental Disorders 16:1 pp 91-92 Tuomanen E Feb 1993 reaching the Blood Brain Barrier Scientific American pp 56-60 Vaccination Awareness Network PO Box 177 Bangalow NSW 2479 Van Krevelen A 1971 Early Infantile Autism and Autistic Psychopathy Journal of Autism 1 pp 82-66 Viscott DS 1969 A Musical Idiot Savant Psychiatry 32 pp 494-515 Von Economo C 1929 Encephalitis Lethargica and Encephalomyelite Subaigue Diffuse of Cruchet Joum Amer Med Assoc 92:20 pp1703-1704 Wallis C Sept 5 1994 Kids in Overdrive Time Australia pp 30-42. Walters AS Barrett RP 1993 The History of Hyperactivity JL Matson editor Handbook of Hyperactivity in Children Massachusetts Simon and Schuster pp1-10 Walton JN 1975 Essentials of Neurology 4th Edition Great Britain Pitman Medical Publishing Co Ltd Wamboldt MZ. Weintraub P Krafchick D Wamboldt 1996 Psychiatric Family History in Adolescents with Severe Asthma Journ Amer Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35:8 pp 1042-1049 Weiss G 1993 Hyperactive Children Grown Up 2nd Edition New York Guilford Publications Inc Werne J Garrow I 1946 Fatal Anaphylactic Shock Occurrance in Identical Twins Following Second Injection of Diphtheria Toxoid and Pertussis Antigen Joum Amer Med Assoc 131:9 pp 730-735 Wesselhoeft C Smith EC Branch CF 1938 Human Encephalitis Joum Amer Med Assoc 111:19 pp 1735-1741 West S 1889 Brit Med Joum 1:157 Cited Lurie and Levy 1942 Wing L 1968 The Continuum of Autistic Characteristics E Schopler GB Mesibov editors Diagnosis and Assessment in Autism. New York: Plenum Press pp 91-110 Woodyatt G Ozanne A 1994 Intentionality and Communication in Four Children with Rett Syndrome Australia and New Zealand Journ. Developmental Disables 19:3 pp173-183 Young RL Nettelbeck T 1995 The Abilities of a Musical Savant and his Family Journ Autism and Developmental Disorders 25:3 pp 231-247 Youngchaiyud U Coates AS Whittingham S Mackay IR 1974 Cellular Immune Response to Myelin Protein: Absence in Multiple Sclerosis and Presence in Cerebrovascular Accidents Aust NZ Joum Med 4:6 pp 536-538 Ziegler LH 1928 Follow up Studies on Persons Who have had Epidemic Encephalitis Journ Amer Med Assoc 91:3 pp138-140.

2000: Worldwide Vaccine Serums - contain highly toxic additives mercury squaline aluminium formaldehyde live cancer viruses msg leading to autism permanent nerve degenerative diseases and many other horrific health disorders and side effects condonned by US govt. AMA FDA WHO etc. etc. see Eugenic Societies.

2013: US Study Glyphosate Herbicide Found in Most Vaccines - Research Scientist Anthony Samsel has confirmed that Glyphosate a key active chemical in Monsanto's herbicide Roundup has been found as a contaminant in most vaccines. Not only are Humans exposed to glyphosate from numerous sources eg: herbicides pesticides sprays GM crops/foods/ingredients as residues in processed foods glyphosate is present in vaccines. Roundup is one of the most toxic herbicides tested. Glyphosate is known to promote endocrine disrupting effects after entering cells.

Also ..

Over 60% of Americans have some form of EBV. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has created a Secret Epidemic. Out of the roughly 320 million people in the USA over 225 million Americans have some form of EBV. Among the reasons why EBV is thriving is that so little is understood about it. Medical communities are aware of only one version of EBV, but there are actually over 60 varieties. Epstein-Barr virus is behind several of the debilitating illnesses that stump doctors. It's the mystery illness of mystery illnesses. Doctors have no idea how the virus operates long-term and how problematic it can be. The truth is, EBV is the source of numerous health problems that are currently considered mystery illnesses such as fibromalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome. EBV is also the cause of some major maladies that medical communities think they understand but really don't including thyroid disease, vertigo and tinnitus.

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