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(Re-posting) Aquatic Ape Hypothesis; Rethinking of Human Evolution.
December 27, 2018
11:30 am
Richard Daystrom PhD
Livermore, CA.
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Forum Posts: 740
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December 19, 2018
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Alternative Knowledge; is defined as “information rooted in mainstream science, but in areas normally kept from public discussion because they cast doubt on the currently accepted paradigms and dogmas of the mainstream.”
                                                                                                                -Lloyd Pye-

  Aquatic Ape Hypothesis; the Miocene Epoch “Planet of the Apes”
  Rethinking; of Human Evolution.
                                                                 By Wendell O. Belfield, Jr.
                                                  Optidose Orthomolecular Nutritional Advocate
                                                      Copyright© 2017 Wendell O. Belfield, Jr.


"I have come to the understanding that the science that we were taught takes us but a distance towards the truth." 

                                                                                                         Dana Scully, X-Files


    “Humans have been around for tens of billions of years.  They are all over the place out there and migrate from world to world.  Humans were originally aquatic which accounts for many of their unusual characteristics which seem inadequate for life on the surface.  Aquatic humans still exist in the oceans of other worlds and lived in the oceans of earth until the end of the ice age.  There are rumors that some still do.”

    Darwinian evolution lays claim to the following; “all species of organisms arise and develop through the natural selection of small, inherited variations that increase the individual's ability to compete, survive, and reproduce”. Up until now there have been several theories as to how evolution is initiated. In the past it has been proposed that radioactive substances, gamma rays, x-rays, or certain chemicals cause mutations which are considered a necessary part of evolution. There are many kinds of mutations. The three main mutations are 1) Point mutation (one base is substituted or changed into another base. 2) Deletion mutation (a base is deleted from the DNA sequence shifting all of the other bases. 3) Insertion mutation (a base is inserted into the DNA sequence shifting all of the other bases.). It is important to keep in mind that genes do not operate in a nutritive vacuum.

    The science of Orthomolecular nutrition (In 1968 Dr. Linus Pauling defined Orthomolecular therapy as the following; "Orthomolecular therapy consists in the prevention and treatment of disease by varying the concentrations in the human body of substances that are normally present.") has demonstrated that the underlying basis of evolution is a nutritionally changing environment. The ultimate survival of a species depends on how efficiently the intake of micro-nutrients is utilized. The following statement from the United States Department of Energy’s Joint Genome Institute in Walnut Creek, California supports the previous comment; “A person’s genes determines how their body absorbs and uses nutrients.”  The science of Orthomolecular nutrition is all-important in determining whether a species will survive or go extinct.

    Dr. Hans Selye (1907- 1982) is acknowledged as the "Father" of the field of stress research, was an Austrian-Hungarian/Canadian endocrinologist. He was the first to give a scientific explanation for biological stress. On the authority of Dr. Selye there are two major components to biological stress. They are the nervous system and the endocrine (hormonal) system. The three stages of Selye’s General Adaptation Syndrome stress model are the following: 1) Alarm Reaction (AR). This refers to the organism’s immediate action to the stressor. 2) Stage of Resistance or Stage of Adaptation. Does the organism adapt to the stressor. In this case the stressor can be starvation. 3) Stage of Exhaustion or Extinction.  This is the ability of the organism’s immune system to resist disease.

    Dr. Selye’s, General Adaptive Syndrome stress model can be considered the number-one stimulus of evolutionary mutagenesis (is a process by which the genetic information of an organism is changed in a stable manner, resulting in a mutation). The science of Orthomolecular nutrition used as an adjunct with Han’s Selye’s GAS, can disclose whether a species has been selected for continuous evolution or doomed for extinction.

    The accuracy of the General Adaptive Syndrome stress model can be evaluated by the following statement. The core principle in Darwinian evolution is when a species can successfully maintain a level of optimum nutrition; this will ensure the passing of their genes to their offspring’s.  Those species who cannot sustain a level of optimum nutrition will not have the privilege to reproduce because their nutritive deficiencies will make them susceptible to debilitating diseases (stage #3 of Han’s Selye’s, General Adaptive Syndrome). This is the first time that the science of Orthomolecular nutrition has been elevated to the forefront to provide a detailed understanding of the forces of Darwinian evolution.

    It is quite unusual that a consensus is shared among two bitter scientific rivals. Among alternative and conventional science groups there is a general agreement that the aquatic ape hypothesis espoused by marine biologist Alister Hardy, Elaine Morgan, Desmond Morris and former NOAA (National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration) scientist Dr. Paul Robertson has no place in discussions concerning human evolution.  The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that the aquatic ape hypothesis was not only plausible but did occur during the course of human evolution. AAH had great significance in the evolution of humans.  The General Adaptive Syndrome and the Science of Orthomolecular Nutrition (SOON) are used to provide a new analysis to the aquatic ape hypothesis. When GAS-SOON is used as means to analyze the mechanism of human evolution it will become quite apparent that nutrition is a major factor in the process of evolutionary change.

    The Miocene named by Sir Charles Lyell is the first geological epoch of the Neogene Period. The Miocene epoch extended from about 23.03 to 5.333 million years ago. During this epoch, apes experienced their greatest divergence, it is thought that as many as 30 to 100 species existed, inhabiting extensive regions of Africa, Asia, and Europe.  During the Late Miocene, climatic changes that increased seasonality (and gradually replaced many forests with grasslands) and competition from an ever increasing number of monkey species caused a decline in the diversity of ape species.

    With the large migration of apes throughout the world it is quite possible that they inhabited just about all environmental niches. For instance, even though it has never been officially discussed in academic circles, there may have been flying apes, actually gliding apes.  It is known that some species of apes like the gibbons practice the technique of brachiation (a form of arboreal locomotion in which primates swing from tree limb to tree limb using only their arms.). With a few micro evolutionary modifications brachiation may have given way to a form of gliding from tree to tree. This would be similar to the evolution of gliding squirrels.

    It is quite plausible that there may have been two kinds of aquatic apes.  Just like there are two kinds of porpoises, fresh water or river porpoises and the more popular marine or seawater porpoises. Since porpoises are mammals just like the apes and they occupied both freshwater and sea water environments. There is reason to believe that apes could have exploited similar water environments like the porpoises. About 18 million years ago the true evolutionary history of man began in the warm coastal waters around the Southern hemisphere with the coastal aquatic ape.  The focus of this paper will be on marine apes.

         Near the middle or end of the Miocene epoch environmental pressures such as scarcity of food and the quality of food (GAS; Stage #2, Stage of Resistance or Stage of Adaptation) was influencing the evolution of Australopithecus. The competition for scarce food resources among the troop of Australopithecines was at times deadly.  During these stressful times in order to keep these troops as fit as possible, those individuals who were considered  nonproductive  with regards to acquiring food and breeding unfit offspring became cast offs from their respective troops. This practice was put to use to increase the troop’s chances for survival during harsh times. The discarding of nonproductive individuals was a common practice among the Australopithecine’s, after a time there would be a sizable population of Australopithecine “outcasts.”  These Outnoicine’s (outcasts/hominoids/Australopithecines) had a poor diet (GAS; Stage #2). It was common for these ragtag troops to go days without food. When searching for food they often found themselves encroaching into a rival’s territory only to be immediately rebuffed.

   Eating on the run was a habit of the Outnoicine’s. In their weakened state the Outnoicine’s did not fare well in direct confrontations with rival troops of Australopithecine’s especially when there were sparse food resources. It can be surmised that do to an inadequate diet these ragtag troops were malnourished. This lifestyle led them to be in poor health and to be developmentally retarded physically and mentally. The primary means of increasing their troop size was not an increase in the birth rate but by absorbing other Outnoicine’s.  If it wasn’t for a prolonged period at GAS; Stage #2: Stage of Resistance or Stage of Adaptation these Outnicine’s would have entered GAS; Stage #3: Stage of Exhaustion or Extinction. Instead of entering Stage #3 they continued to adapt through the activation of the L-gulono-γ-lactone oxidase molecule. The activation of this enzyme at Stage #2 allowed the Outnoicine’s to internally synthesize ascorbic acid which would protect them from not only scurvy but from other sub-clinical scurvy related diseases.

    For millions of years the troops of Australopithecine Outnoicine’s were gradually being forced out from the prime regions of the tropical forests and grasslands. Eventually they found themselves being forced to the outer fringes of these lands. In the final expulsion; they finally ran out of real estate. They were banished to the coastlines. This nutritive deficient troop finally reached their biochemical stress related threshold. This is when the General Adaptation Syndrome conceived by Hans Selye MD determines whether a short-term and long-term reaction to stress affects the reactivation or deactivation of the L-gulono-γ-lactone oxidase molecule.   

    Short-term stress [(GAS; Stage #1; Alarm Reaction (AR)], would not  activate the L-gulono-γ-lactone oxidase molecule for the internal biosynthesis of ascorbic acid because external or environmental sources of ascorbic acid are still readily available for maintaining health.  Long-term reactions to stress, (GAS; Stage #2; Stage of Resistance or Stage of Adaptation,) will facilitate the internal synthesis of ascorbic acid, the reason being that there are little or no environmental sources of ascorbic acid to maintain health.  In summary the General Adaptation Syndrome does the following it influences an organism’s rate of evolutionary change and influences whether an organism’s short-term or a long-term reaction to stress activates or deactivates the L-gulono-γ-lactone oxidase molecule.

     The last phase for this troop of Australopithecine Outnoicine’s came when evolution selected them as no longer fit, (GAS; Stage #3; Stage of Exhaustion or Extinction). The L-gulono-γ-lactone oxidase molecule was deactivated. The Outnoicines were no longer able to internally synthesize ascorbic acid. They now became vulnerable to a whole range of sub-clinical scurvy type diseases. As the curtain of extinction was descending something remarkable happened.  A few individuals from this dying troop turned death into a fighting chance to live when they discovered a nutritious and plentiful food source on the coastal shores that they didn’t have to compete for.  This undernourished and hypoascorbemic troop of Australopithecine’s, fortuitously came upon an unlimited supple of coastal crustaceans.  This consisted of crabs, lobster, crayfish, shrimp and krill. The nutritive value for 100 grams of crustacean’s for this brand new subspecies, the semi-aquatic Australopithecines(it is reasonable to assume these semi-aquatic Australopithecines ate more than 100 grams of crustaceans in- one- sitting) versus the tropical diet of land dwelling Australopithecines was equal to or in the best of times exceeded the nutritive intake of their land dwelling cousins. 

    The situation described above has to be considered more of an exception than the rule. GAS: stage #3 is curtains or the end for the majority of species on Earth. In the normal course of evolution all living things die off. The Australopithecines Outnoicines serendipitously found themselves in favorable circumstances when they were forced into their new coastline environment.  They immediately exploited an untapped food source.  This propelled them up from GAS; stage #3 to Stage #2 and eventually to GAS; stage #1. As a rule Darwinian evolution functions in descending not ascending stages.

    This new diet was instrumental in the rejuvenation of the Outnoicine’s. This once pathetic troop of Australopithecines was now evolving to adapt to their new surroundings.  Micro evolutionary changes were now being initiated for them to become specialized to a semi-aquatic environment. As they became more specialized their diet would expand to include marine fish. They would still retain enough of their terrestrial roots. On rare occasions when they would find their diet of crustaceans lacking, they would climb sea cliffs to raid the nesting seabirds of their eggs.


                             Nutritive Value of 100 grams of Crustaceans


                       Vitamins                                                      Minerals

  1. Vitamin A………….. 53 IU                               1.  Calcium……     27mg
  2. Vitamin B-9……… 37 mg                                2. Iron………….  .84 mg
  3. Vitamin E……… 2.85 mg                                3. Potassium…. 302 mg
  4. Vitamin B-6………. 1 mg                                 4. Magnesium…. 27 mg
  5. Vitamin B-12……… 2ug                                  5. Phosphorus.. 256 mg
  6. Vitamin C………… 1.2 grams                           6. Sodium……….  58 mg
  7. Vitamin K…………… 1ug                                 7. Zinc…………… 1.3 mg
  8. Vitamin B-1…… .07mg
  9. Vitamin B-2…… .03mg
  10. Vitamin B-5…….. 54mg
  11. Vitamin B-9……… 37ug

    Two times unshared Nobel Laureate Linus Pauling and Irwin Stone PhD speculated that when L-gulono-γ-lactone oxidase molecule was turned off this may have accelerated the development of neural pathways, meaning rapid brain development. The good luck that was seemingly bestowed upon the Australopithecine Outnoicine’s provided them with an uninterrupted source of omega three fatty acids that they once had in their tropical environment. A marine diet rich in omega three fatty acids would augment the further development of their brain.  With an overall better diet it would seem likely that the brain development of the semi-aquatic apes was increasing at an alarming rate, than for the land dwelling apes that had to contend with food scarcity and temporary starvation. With better nutrition the semi-aquatic coastal apes experienced a baby boom. These new generations of semi-aquatic apes were healthier, bigger and smarter than their parents and their land dwelling cousins. Overtime a small troop of these semi-aquatic apes would venture farther and deeper into the coastal waters for food. This additional adaptation made sure that they would never again experience food scarcity and starvation.  

    As their brains grew the semi-aquatic ape’s behavior became more complex. They began to demonstrate complex communication skills such as rudimentary language. This complex behavior allowed them to conduct periodic foraging raids on their ancient ancestral lands. Having multi-faceted communication skills allowed these semi-aquatic apes to function efficiently on both land and sea environments. This ability made them a formidable adversary to terrestrial Australopithecines. These semi-aquatic apes were stealthy on land. When venturing into the tropical forests/grasslands they took whatever food they wanted, with hardly any altercations from the terrestrial Australopithecines. Their audacity gave notice to the terrestrials that a new evolved species has come to power and is going to make changes. This behavior kept them in contact with their inland origins. Later on this behavior would serve them well when the oceans started to recede.

     The Pleistocene Epoch is defined as the period of time that began about 1.8 million years ago and lasted about 11,700 years ago. The most recent Ice Age is sometimes referred to as the Quaternary glaciation (Quaternary period) or the Pleistocene glaciation. This geological period took place during the last 100,000 years of the Pleistocene, from approximately 110,000 to 12,000 years ago.  As glaciers covered vast parts of the planet Earth the oceans receded, exposing land that was once covered by the oceans. Some semi-aquatic Australopithecines adjusted to the retreating oceans by going farther out from the coastlines into deeper waters for their food (GAS; stage #2; Stage of resistance or Stage of adaptation.). These semi-aquatic apes were going through micro-evolutionary changes to become totally aquatic. Their land dwelling days were over. In time, these aquatic apes would become eminently adapted for a pelagic existence.

     What was previously described took millions of years to accomplish.  These semi aquatic apes were experiencing biochemical and physiological micro-evolutionary changes. Those apes that were very efficient in metabolizing their micro-nutrients were to experience the full effect of evolutionary change. Efficiency in metabolizing micro-nutrients allowed a splinter group from the semi-aquatic apes to sustain minimal stress at General Adaptive Syndrome; stage #1 AR/Alarm Reaction. Take into account that minimal stress is normal, an absence of stress means you’re no longer living! As a result, long intervals at stage #1 allowed beneficial micro-evolutionary changes to be made on these semi-aquatic apes. Changes in their anatomy and physiology allowed the apes to become specialized for a marine existence.  1) Webbing between fingers (other primates don’t have this), 2) Subcutaneous fat (insulating from cold water), 3) Control over breath (humans can hold breath up to 20 minutes, longer than any other terrestrial animal), 4) Loss of body hair (hair creates drag in water), 5) Instinctive ability to swim (human babies are able to do this). 6) A highly developed brain, which depends on nutrients provided by having a marine diet.

    The rate of evolution for those semi-aquatic apes that were not as efficient as the aquatic apes in metabolizing their micro-nutrients was slower. These less efficient apes would never complete their evolutionary change for a permanent marine existence, they remained semi-aquatic. The evolutionary fate of these semi-aquatic apes would be determined at either GAS; stage #2; Stage of resistance or Stage of adaptation or stage #3; Stage of exhaustion or extinction.

   The aquatic apes evolved into a species that became specialized to a marine existence, they would be exposed to new stressful conditions never before encountered. The General Adaptation Syndrome; stage #1; Alarm Reaction (AR) would be appropriate in describing the new environmental pressures these aquatic apes would be encountering.  Decompression illness (includes nitrogen narcosis, high pressure nervous syndrome, oxygen toxicity, pulmonary barotrauma/burst lung) would be important environmental challenges while in deep waters. The alarm reaction experienced would have been an increase in heart rate and hormonal activity. The GAS; stage #2 activation of the L-gulono-γ-lactone oxidase molecule would have been an immediate solution to Decompression illness. The ability to internally synthesize ascorbic acid would play a crucial role in negating the effects of oxygen toxicity.  Without the ability to internally synthesize ascorbic acid these aquatic apes would descend to General Adaptation Syndrome; stage #3; stage of Exhaustion or extinction.  The inability to cope with decompression illness would surely have led to their extinction.

    The receding oceans were a result of the Ice Age. The main group, the semi-aquatic apes found themselves gradually going back to their ancient ways, a terrestrial existence. The coastal areas were no longer a major source for food. While the Semi-aquatic Australopithecus was in the process of re-claiming their ancient past as land dwellers, the forces of evolution were in the process of exerting anatomical and physiological micro-evolutionary changes which gave rise to the macro-evolution of a new species of hominoid called Homo erectus.  As Homo erectus was completing its transformation to a land existence, millions of years later evolution would once again execute another important macro-evolutionary change. Homo erectus evolved into Homo Heidelbergensis.

     Homo Heidelbergensis retained their 48 chromosomes from their ape ancestors. With this number of chromosomes it is suspected that these hominoids needed an optimum level of nutrition to sustain their high metabolism. The ancient marine diet that once saved their ancestors from extinction had enough calories to sustain their metabolism, but they no longer had access to that kind of diet

    As Homo Heidelbergensis continued to migrate inland they experienced weather extremes that caused droughts and famines (GAS; stage#2; Stage of resistance/Stage of adaptation).  In these environmental extremes they could not sustain an optimum level of nutrition. The continued exposure to dietary deficiencies increased the vulnerability of these hominoids to a whole range of diseases (GAS; stage #3; Stage of exhaustion or extinction). There had to have been sub-groups of Homo Heidelbergensis that succumbed to stage #3 of the General Adaptive Syndrome stress model.

   The repeated exposure to environmental extremes during the existence of Homo Heidelbergensis made them a “bad weather” hominoid. Unfortunately, in order to minimize their stress they did not have the ability synthesize their own ascorbic acid.  An ever increasing accumulation of micro-evolutionary mutations damaged the niacin (B3) DNA repair process. These frameshift mutations were deleterious. Those sub groups of Homo Heidelbergensis at stage #3 continued to die off.  Sub groups at stage #2 were more genetically resilient than the previous subgroup. The biochemistry of this subgroup of Homo Heidelbergensis was efficient in how their body absorbed and utilized nutrients.  Frameshift mutations (a genetic mutation caused by a deletion or insertion in a DNA sequence that shifts the way the sequence is read. Frameshift mutations may be beneficial, deleterious, or lethal. ) at stage #2 was beneficial. The stage #2 subgroups were fortunate to have enough favorable micro-evolutionary changes to diverge into a new species of hominoid. This new species was Homo Neanderthalensis.

    The Neanderthals were the first to branch off from the Homo Heidelbergensis line; in the future there would be two additional (questionable) branches off this line.   They would be Cro Magnon (hominoid) and Homo sapiens (Hominid). The question that seems to be deliberately avoided by mainstream science is the following; are Cro Magnon and Homo sapiens part of the normal evolutionary flow on this planet? It is generally accepted that periods of long duration either at stage #1 or Stage #2 prompted the reactivation of the L-gulono-γ-lactone oxidase molecule which is crucial for the internal biosynthesis of ascorbic acid. The internal synthesis of ascorbic acid continues to be a major factor in the success of Homo Neanderthalensis.

     With 48 chromosomes, studies have shown that the Neanderthal anatomical structures, especially their large brain needed more energy to survive than any other species of hominoids (except for the Cro Magnon’s). Their energy needs were up to 100–350 calories more per day compared to modern human males weighing 68.5 kg (151.0 lbs.) and females 59.2 kg (130.5 lbs.).  The demands of having a high caloric intake were not met when food became scarce. The scarcity of food with a high caloric content may have played a major role in the decline of Neanderthals but not their extinction (Stage#2; Stage of Resistance/Stage of Adaptation, GAS). 

    The conventional image of the Neanderthals is of a short stocky hominoid, clad in animal skins, trekking across vast expanses of ice in a desperate search to find food. This is the long established image that comes to mind when we think about the Ice Age. Such stereotypes are false because there were probably several different types of Neanderthals ranging in size, height and weight.

    The average temperature of the earth during this glacial period was 49 degrees Fahrenheit. During this period the colder regions of Earth was about 12 degrees Fahrenheit or less. The late Lloyd Pye one of the pioneers of alternative knowledge had postulated that the Neanderthals wearing animal skins could not keep warm in temperatures ranging from 12 degrees Fahrenheit or below.  Pye states that in excavation sites where Neanderthals were thought to have inhabited there has been no discovery of any kind of rudimentary sewing paraphernalia to indicate that they were wearing animal furs. The thinking is that the Neanderthals entire body was covered with hair to keep them warm. The science of Ichnology (is the branch of geology and biology that deals with traces of organismal behavior, such as footprints and burrows. It is generally considered as a branch of paleontology) has demonstrated that the footprints of Neanderthal and “Big Foot” or “Sasquatch “are identical.  

    One should keep in mind that 30% to 40% of the land on this planet has not been foot surveyed. The dense montane forests are too difficult to be foot surveyed by humans.   These hard to reach areas are the locations where the hominoids inhabit. The prime real estate sites on Earth are occupied by the Homo sapiens.  The evidence just presented requires a new paradigm concerning the physical appearance of the Neanderthals. “Big Foot” or “Sasquatch”, abominable snowman and the skunk ape are actually Neanderthals.

    The new image of the typical Cro Magnon is of a short stocky hominoid, clad in animal skins, trekking across vast expanses of ice in a desperate search to find food.  Cro Magnon, also, had48 chromosomes and a high or fast metabolism and like their cousins Homo Neanderthalensis. During the ice age the Neanderthals were nocturnal hunters especially adapted to dense montane forests. The main source of nutrition in those climates is meat. Even though the Neanderthals are considered omnivorous their diet considered mostly of meat. The Cro Magnon a diurnal hunter may have been more socially advanced but they were not as strong and skilled a hunter as the Neanderthals.  Cro Magnon had difficulty satiating their high metabolism during environmentally hard times (stage #2).

     It has been hypothesized that when the Neanderthals left Africa for Europe, about 40,000 years later Cro Magnon pursued a similar migratory path. Eventually, over time these two species would co-exist. The Cro Magnon’s were not strong nurturers of their young during harsh times.  If a Cro Magnon infant happened to be born during the hunting season, in order to make sure that all members could participate in the hunt, infanticide (probably the killing off of female babies was the norm because they weren't considered as useful in hunts; evidence: the male population was 10% greater than the female population) was periodically practiced to relieve the female adult of child rearing obligations. 

    Evidence has revealed that on occasion the Cro Magnon practiced cannibalism. The practice of cannibalism was a last resort when the local environment could not supply the optimum nutrients to sustain their high metabolism. It has been speculated that over time the Cro Magnon population was declining because of inadequate nutrition, infanticide and cannibalism. In a desperate attempt to replenish the population, breeding with Neanderthals was attempted. This attempt at best was only marginally successful.  When Homo sapiens arrived on the scene in Europe Cro Magnon was near extinction (Stage #3; Stage of Exhaustion or Extinction, GAS).

     Crossbreeding between the Neanderthals and Cro-Magnon’s was possible since each had 48 chromosomes.  The result of such a union was a hybrid. Let’s call this union “Cromthaals”.  The females of such a union would maintain their monestrous cycle (the period in the sexual cycle of female mammals, during which they are in heat—i.e., ready to accept a male and to mate. One or more periods of estrus may occur during the breeding season of a species. ). The estrus cycle is evolutions way of putting a limit on population growth.

    The real problem would arise when the Cromthaals would breed among themselves and no longer with the Neanderthals or Cro Magnon’s. It is suspected that when these hybrids would breed among themselves the second generation females would lose their monestrus cycle completely.  This resulted in the ability of the second generation female hybrids to get pregnant anytime of the year. This allowed for an unlimited population growth. An unlimited growth would put the population at stage #3 (stage of exhaustion; a stressed immune system would be unable to resist disease) of the General Adaptive syndrome (GAS).

    It has been hypothesized that there was a breakaway group of Cro Magnon’s which did not migrate with the others.  This particular group remained because they were able to retain some of the nutritional habits of their ancient ancestors, the coastal aquatic apes.  They had a diversified diet. As they migrated farther inland away from the coastal oceans, they could not maintain their diversified diet. They were increasingly becoming hypoascorbemic. As a result, this group of Cro Magnon’s became susceptible to a whole range of subclinical scurvy type diseases (Stage #3 of the GAS).  Evolution would mark this group for extinction.

    For reasons that cannot be explained something very unusual happened to this group of Cro-Magnons. The evidence is becoming quite compelling that there was several subgroups of Cro-Magnon’s undergoing a beneficial frameshift mutational change. The Cro-Magnon’s genome would be reduced from 48 chromosomes to 46. What happened was that there was a fusion of two chromosomes that reduced the chromosome number to 46. “How this happened is not known,” according to Ron Baker, PhD from the Argonne National Laboratory outside of Chicago, Illinois.  The fusion of two chromosomes has only been accomplished successfully in a laboratory environment.

    The fusion that happens in the human chromosome (the fusion of two chromosomes) is a disorder that typically causes handicaps and even the death of an individual. The best-known example is Down’s syndrome. So far scientific experiments have revealed that chromosomal fusion delivers no benefits; on the contrary it produces unhealthy mutants or infertile individuals.

    Mainstream science makes the claim that “genetic drift” (Environmental and social pressures that make one population different from another.) was the mechanism by which ape chromosomes 12 and 13 was fused to make human chromosome 2. Remember, chromosomes do not operate in a nutritive vacuum. If this is true the hominoids that are undergoing “genetic drift” are probably experiencing either GAS; stage #2(Stage of Resistance or Stage of Adaptation) or stage#3 (Stage of Exhaustion or Extinction.). These hominoid populations are dying. The question that has to be asked is how many generations does it take before “genetic drift” becomes beneficial during a state of nutritive deficiency. It would be a stroke of luck if “genetic drift” during an initial random mutation happened to be an immediate benefit. Let’s say, after several generations of random mutations a beneficial mutation arises, the hominoid gene pool is so depleted that inbreeding now becomes a major threat to the viability of the species.

    From an Orthomolecular view point these Cro-Magnon’s were nutritionally deficient (Stage #3 of the GAS). As a result they developed a genetic disorder or a non-lethal mutation that occurs at a rate of 1/1000. The genetic disorder was the fusing to make human chromosome 2. Chromosome 2 is the fusion of ape chromosomes 12 and 13 with most of the same genes. With this odd occurrence, over a short period of time (250,000 years) Cro Magnon accumulated enough micro-evolutionary mutations to evolve into a new species called Homo sapiens.

    It is hypothesized that the fusion of the human chromosome 2 did confer some benefits to the Homo sapiens. The first being the slowing down of their metabolism; a slower metabolism meant a lower caloric intake of nutrients. This modification made Homo sapiens more resistant to famines. To minimize any potential deleterious effects of chromosomal fusion an old standby was revived, the L-gulonolactone oxidase molecule was reactivated by a transitional point mutation. The last time the L-gulonolactone oxidase molecule was activated was during the heyday of Homo Neanderthalensis.    This very rare process of chromosomal fusion, which may have taken place in nature, eludes conventional scientific thinking.  It is difficult to believe that chromosomal fusion may occur naturally. Before chromosomal fusion could begin the telomeres (caps at the end of chromosomes) have to be chemically sliced off. In order to verify that the telomeres have been removed requires several high technology techniques such as; DNA extraction, Karyotyping, FISH analysis, Gel electrophoresis, Mass spectrometry and many other different techniques. How can this be accomplished and verified without any kind of high tech techniques and equipment absolutely boggles the mind.

    It is still within the realm of possibilities that Hans Selye’s General Adaptive Syndrome (GAS) stress model may consist of a rare stage #4 step which facilitates the fusion of two benign chromosomes by way of a conditional mutation (A mutation that will kill a cell under certain conditions but not under others.).As another alternative explanation to the fusion of two chromosomes, one must seriously consider the prospect of Interventional Evolution or directed panspermia. This may be the easiest to understand rather than to believe the fusion of two chromosomes occurred naturally during evolution.     

     A new transitory subspecies of Homo sapiens named Homo sapiens Ascorbicus was created when the L-gulonolactone oxidase molecule was reactivated.  This subspecies to all intents and purposes was disease resistant. The two major drawbacks of an activated L-gulonolactone oxidase molecule was the lack of permanence and no accelerated neural development. At this point in Homo sapien evolution, accelerated neural development was not a crucial need.  Homo sapien Ascorbicus would continue to experience neural development but at a slow sustained rate.

    The forces of evolution deemed it important for Ascorbicus to focus on developing a stable social structure   along with good nurturing skills for their young. There was no immediate need to have accelerated neural growth until the Ascorbicus population had stabilized.  From now on major evolutionary changes would take place socially not by micro evolutionary changes that would affect the DNA molecule.  The day finally arrived when Homo sapiens Ascorbicus became a vibrant and flourishing species. The evolutionary urge to migrate came into full swing. The Homo sapiens would be more prepared physically and socially than their Cro Magnon ancestors when they started their northward trek.  

    The migration from a tropical or warm environment to a colder environment was fret with many dangers. Reasons being that the tropical plants do not contain enough of the omega-three fatty acids needed in the colder areas. When Homo sapien Ascorbicus left the confines of South Africa the L-gulonolactone oxidase molecule that brought them back from near extinction would once again be deactivated. The one time disease resistant Homo sapien Ascorbicus now became the mere mortal Homo sapien.  Famine conditions played a major factor in creating the; GAS stage #2, stage of Resistance or stage of adaptation which deactivated the L-gulono-γ-lactone oxidase molecule. The disabling of the L-gulono-γ-lactone oxidase molecule prevented the internal bio-synthesis of ascorbic acid.

    Once again, the deactivation would resume the acceleration of neural development.  Accelerated neural growth would allow Homo sapiens adapt to new environments and to find new alternative sources of ascorbic acid. During this period the omnivorous diet of the Homo sapiens may have been given further prominence. The General adaptive Syndrome stimulated the desire in humans to eat a large variety of foods from animal and vegetable sources.  The colder climates provided enough omega-three fatty acids to further facilitate the acceleration of neural development.

    The reduction from 48 to 46 chromosomes provided humans with a slower metabolism. Besides having a slower metabolism another benefit was bestowed upon these humans that increased their chances of survival during times of food scarcity. These Homo sapiens would now take advantage of a distinctive trait from their ancient aquatic-ape past. In times of famine (GAS; Stage #2, Stage of Resistance or Stage of Adaptation.) they could now effectively use their supply of subcutaneous fat as a source of energy (in ancient times served to insulate them from cold water). Once, again they would have to contend being hypoascorbemic.  Hypoascorbemia would always continue to be a scourge that would wreak havoc on humans. The inability to internally synthesize ascorbic acid would relegate humans to stage #3 of the General Adaptive Syndrome stress model.



    At times it seems the mysteries contained within the human genome overshadow the evidence that Homo sapiens had aquatic beginnings. This by itself is truly amazing!  The evidence presented strongly suggests that hominoid evolution began in accordance to the precepts of Darwinian evolution. During the Cro Magnon era there is a deliberate interruption in the flow of evolution. The reduction of 48 chromosomes to 46 by way chromosomal fusion is a paradox. The future existence of the current version of Homo sapiens (evidence suggests the strong possibility of being a genetic fabrication) may depend on a clear understanding of why this tampering occurred.

    The evolutionary history of Homo sapiens is beset with a lot of mysteries. In the human genome, chromosome 2 is the result of the fusion of ape chromosomes 12 and 13. How could the random nature of Darwinian evolution execute such an intricate process?  The three stages of Hans Selye’s M.D., General Adaptive Syndrome stress model provides a clear insight into the inner workings of evolution. It has been shown that the General Adaptive Syndrome is the driving force behind Darwinian evolution or natural selection. Even though GAS is crucial in the process of natural Selection it does not provide a clear understanding into the forming of chromosome 2 in the human genome. If the principal of Occam’s razor (Is a line of reasoning that says the simplest answer is often correct) is used to solve this enigma, of how the fusion of ape chromosomes 12 and 13 produced chromosome 2. The simplest answer to this puzzle should be directed panspermia or Interventional evolution.

    The repeated deactivation and reactivation of the L-gulonolactone oxidase molecule during natural selection appears not to have impeded the evolutionary progress of Hominoid development.  This is indeed somewhat strange considering the importance of ascorbic acid (C6H8O6 ) is to the biosynthesis of collagen (is the most abundant protein in the body. It helps connective tissue to be strong and provides cushioning for various parts of the body).  Two times unshared Nobel Laureate Linus Pauling states the following: “We have come upon the two big reasons why we require for good health so much larger amounts of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) than are present in the plants we use as food. First, there is the bodies’ continuing need for the synthesis of large amounts of collagen for growth and for replacement of the collagen degraded by daily wear and tear.  Second, vitamin C, in the critical reactions that assemble collagen in the tissues, does not serve merely as a catalyst but is destroyed."

     Mario C. DeTullio, PhD raises the question as to how Homo sapiens could have evolved normally( This is the issue Homo sapiens did not evolve normally!) without the ability to internally synthesize ascorbic acid. He states the following; “but how can something so crucial for survival be eliminated through the course of evolution? Typically, we expect that positive traits should be retained during evolution, and as vitamin C is beneficial, how would natural selection remove such a crucial biosynthetic capability? Indeed, individuals carrying the mutation(s) in the gene encoding gulonolactone oxidase should have had less chance of surviving and reproducing. However, the opposite occurred, and those who had lost vitamin C biosynthesis survived. How can we explain this apparent paradox?

    The creation of Homo sapiens came about when Cro-Magnon’s 48 chromosomes were reduced down to 46. This reduction should be considered one of the biggest mysteries on the planet Earth. Conventional science claims that “genetic drift” maybe responsible for this reduction. So far, the fusion of two genes has only been accomplished in a laboratory environment. One of the important rules in Darwinian evolution is that evolutionary changes are not made in anticipation of a problem. Previously it has been stated the fusion of two chromosomes (ape genes 12 and 13 produced human chromosome 2) was done to make Homo sapiens better able to survive famines. If this happens to be the case, a compelling argument can be made that the fusion of two chromosomes was done in anticipation of a future problem. Whatever process evolution chose in selecting ape chromosomes 12 and 13 had to have been a “long” process (thousands of years). Before chromosomes 12 and 13 could be fused the telomeres had to be chemical sliced off. There would have to be some sort of high tech diagnostic process to ensure that whatever technique being used was effective.  

    When genetic engineering has been performed there has to be a period of time which must transpire during the development of the life form in order to see all of the observable characteristics. The life form must fully develop to observe the phenotypical traits that are influenced by both the genotype and the environment (nutrition). This brings to mind the iconic scenes in sci-fi movies when the good guys finally enter the nefarious lab only to notice row after row of specimen jars that shows the gradual steps in perfecting a viable species ( in this particular instance the creation of human beings).

    There is too much room for error using just statistical probability in determining the effectiveness of genetic engineering process. The species attrition rate has to be exceedingly high if evolution is conducting such experiments. This is a definite Stage #3 of the General Adaptive Syndrome stress model. Darwinian evolution could not pull off this kind of genetic experimentation without a high species mortality rate. If success was achieved it is doubtful if there would be enough genetic variation left in the existing population for successful reproduction.  On the other hand interventional evolution could pull this off with a low mortality rate. Obvious areas of failure would be avoided; this cannot be said with Darwinian evolution.

    It is very apparent that nutrition was (and currently is) a major force in the evolution of mankind.  Homo sapiens health is dependent upon consuming food to which humans have been adapted to for over 100,000 years of evolution. Orthomolecular nutrition, in optimal doses, is such a potent factor it can put a limit on genetic determinism (is the mechanism by which genes, along with environmental conditions, determine morphological and behavioral phenotypes). The General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) influences the process of natural selection on whether to reactivate or inactivate the last (or fourth) enzyme in the internal biosynthesis of ascorbic acid.

    The first three pathways will turn off the synthesis of ascorbic acid, but will affect other biochemical pathways. What is astounding is that the deactivation of the L-gulonolactone oxidase molecule at the fourth or last pathway in the bio-synthesis of ascorbic acid does not affect any other biochemical pathways it only affects the synthesis of ascorbic acid. Hominoid evolution seems to be punctuated by the on again and off again of the L-gulonolactone oxidase molecule. The only advantage that can be deduced from the turning off of this molecule is an acceleration of neural development. This is a very precise course adjustment performed by evolution. 

     In addition to not being able to synthesize(5R)-5-[(1S)-1, 2-Dihydroxyethyl]-3, 4-dihydroxy-2(5H)-furanone) which is known as ascorbic acid (C6H8O6) , (so far the results look promising in bio-engineering attempts to reactivate the L-gulono-γ-lactone oxidase molecule in non-human subjects.) Homo sapiens cannot synthesize the micro nutrients B1, B2, B5, B6, B7, B9, and B12 E & K.  What is concerning is that there has been and continues to be an evolutionary decline in the biosynthesis of niacin (B3). Abram Hoffer PhD, MD has stated; “Nevertheless, the synthesis of niacin from tryptophan is a very inefficient process and the 60 milligrams (mg) of the amino acid are necessary to provide 1mg of niacin.  This process also involves vitamins B1, B2 & B6.  If these are in short supply, the synthesis of vitamin B3 will be even less efficient.” 

    With the inability synthesize C6H8O6, along with the nine other micronutrients and the continual evolutionary decline in the synthesis of B3 the question that has to be asked; how can this be of any benefit to Homo sapiens?  Niacin is good for so many things but there are two areas where it is especially effective, controlling blood lipids and psychoses. It is quite possible that the evolutionary decline of niacin is the last gasp in Stage #3 of GAS. Unless there is some sort of intervention this current version of Homo sapiens will be snuffed out like a candle flame.

    Among some scientific circles it is believed that there may have been two versions of Homo sapiens. Version 1.0 was short lived because of numerous genetic defects.  Once these genetic defects were cleaned up version 2.0 was created, which is the current version. In some laboratory here on Earth or elsewhere maybe there are blueprints on the drawing board for newer versions of Homo sapiens. It is hoped that great care and diligence is being conducted for these newer versions. It is quite obvious that the first two versions of Homo sapiens were created in a “slipshod” manner.

    There was an unexpected outcome from The Human Genome Project (HGP) which was proposed in the 1980s and was formally initiated in 1990. The HGP’s major aims were to map and determine the chemical sequences of the three billion nucleotide base pairs that comprise the human genome. The many years of extensive DNA analysis revealed that the human genome has over 4000 gene based disorders. An individual’s genome may have a few of the 4000 or more gene base disorders, but not all 4000 or more in their genome (if they had all 4000 in their genome they could not survive). If these results are accurate this would lend credence to the hypothesis that the human genome could not have been the product of Darwinian Evolution but the result of Interventional Evolution.

   Paleoanthropologists have been searching for the “missing link” fossil (transitional fossil connected with human evolution) for at least a century or more.  The “missing link” is considered the gold standard in proving Homo sapien evolution. The search for the missing link is a red herring (something unimportant that is used to stop people from noticing or thinking about something important). In evolution there are at least several transitions between species “A” and species “B”. Finding the one true transitional species is almost next to impossible. This endless search has now become irrelevant. What is relevant is the understanding how a species could transition from one species to the next. There is a growing belief that living Neanderthals that are currently occupying the dense montane forests will provide answers to these mysteries surrounding the grand appearance of Homo sapiens. The following quote from James Le Fanu, M.D says it best: “Science is a search for the explanation of how things work, not a search for something called “proof” that by direct implication, prevents questioning.”

W. O. Belfield, Jr.

January 29, 2019
6:21 pm
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humans can do amazing things in the water

but at the end of the day our bodies clearly are not suitable for extended aquatic living

February 1, 2019
5:09 pm
Richard Daystrom PhD
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It seems you took some time to read my paper. I would like to thank you for doing so.

W. O. Belfield, Jr.

April 8, 2019
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This is interesting. I haven't read it all in detail yet but I will. 

Thank you for this Dr. Richard Daystrom. 

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