The Black Vault Message Forums

Discover the Truth!        

General Discussion Topics

25th anniversary of the bombing of the Rainbow Warrior

The Black Vault Message Forums has a considerable number of niche forums to place your post. If you can not find a home for it, and the topic doesn't fit anywhere else, then post it here.

Postby rath » Sun Jul 11, 2010 12:40 am

Today is the 25th anniversary of the bombing of the Rainbow Warrior.

Sinking of the Rainbow Warrior

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sinking_of ... ow_Warrior

http://vimeo.com/13205971

http://vimeo.com/13201478
Image
rath
 
Posts: 4345
Joined: Thu Apr 09, 2009 11:54 am


Postby rath » Mon Jul 12, 2010 4:48 pm




I agree ....... Australia had to save the USA & Europe.
Image
rath
 
Posts: 4345
Joined: Thu Apr 09, 2009 11:54 am

Postby greeney2 » Mon Jul 12, 2010 8:35 pm

Sad part is you really believe it. :roll:
greeney2
 
Posts: 9591
Joined: Thu Apr 09, 2009 11:54 am

Postby rath » Tue Jul 13, 2010 1:45 am

greeney2 wrote:Sad part is you really believe it. :roll:


No, what's sad is how the USA need to use other nations victory's in war to right books and make movies.

American lies, propaganda & thievery.

What's sad, is how the USA does not know crap about how little the USA played in both world wars.

In both wars the USA was the last to enter & the first to leave.


What's sad, Is how American's believe the U.S lies about the U.S involvment in any victory in world war one, or world war two.

What's sad, is how the USA and it's people are never told about all the in both world wars & how the Australian's & Brits had to save your butts on more than one occasion.


What's sad is the people of the USA believe Lies & Propaganda.



------------------


For the Fallen

They shall not grow old,
As we that are left grow old.
Age shall not weary them,
Nor the years condemn.
At the going down of the sun,
And in the morning,
We will remember them.

From the poem by Laurence Binyon


'And the band played "Waltzing Matilda", As we stopped to bury the slain. And we buried ours and the Turks buried theirs; And it started all over again.'

Eric Bogle



ANZAC Day, the 25th of April, is a very special day in Australian (and New Zealand) history. ANZAC stands for the Australia New Zealand Army Corps and the reason that it is so important is that on the 25th of April, 1915 Australia went into battle for the first time as an independent nation. We had only became a country in 1901 - before that we were a loose collection of colonies - and this was our "baptism of fire" on the shores of Gallipoli.

Our troops landed on beaches (now called ANZAC cove) on the Turkish peninsular at dawn in this fateful day. They suffered a terrible defeat but our men fought with great bravery and would have succeeded if not for one man - Mustafa Kemal, later known as Ataturk. Although it was a disaster it brought out some great characteristics of mateship and sacrifice for this little island continent of ours. We talk about the "Anzac Spirit" which was born that day and use the term as a mark of the greatest respect. We use this day to remember those who fought, and especially those who fell, in this war and all subsequent wars.

Drawing by Mike Chapell. From the website "ANZAC Memories" (below)
The Battle

In 1915 Australia along with its Allies (Britain, France and Russia, Italy, and Japan) was at war, fighting the Central Powers (Germany, the Ottoman Empire aka Turkey, and Austria-Hungary). When most people think of WW1 they think of fighting Germans in the trenches across France however Russia was also under attack from the Turks in the Caucasus. To aid their plight the Allies hatched a plan to distract Turkey by attacking the Gallipoli Peninsula, on Turkey's Aegean coast. Once the peninsula was taken the Allies would be able to take control of a strait of water called the Dardanelles and lay siege to Turkey's main city, Istanbul (then Constantinople).

Australian and New Zealand troops then training in Egypt were tasked to participate in the attack. On April 25, 1915, the Australian troops landed on the Gallipoli Peninsula on what they had been told was a nice friendly flat beach. Instead, they found that they had been landed at the incorrect position and faced steep cliffs and constant barrages of enemy fire and shelling. Around 20,000 soldiers landed on the beach over the next two days to face a well organised, well armed, large Turkish force determined to defend their country - and led by Mustafa Kemal, who later became Ataturk, the leader of modern Turkey. It is said that Ataturk just happened to be holidaying in the area and took control of the Turkish forces right at the last moment. Thousands of Australian men died in the hours that followed the landing at the beach that would eventually come to be known as Anzac Cove.

What followed was basically a disaster. The Aussies hung in for several months however could make little headway against the Turks. They had nowhere to go and no real hope however they dug in tenaciously and absorbed whatever the Turks threw at them. Many thousands of Aussie and Kiwi soldiers died, not only from the battle but from disease brought about by the poor living conditions. However from this disaster was born the image of the Aussie Digger, a brave and laconic battler, betrayed by the mother country but facing impossible odds with humour, courage and mateship.

Eventually the ANZAC troops were withdrawn from the peninsula having accomplished nothing. Those that survived went on to fight on other fronts but it was at Gallipoli that the legend was born.


For the Fallen

They shall not grow old,
As we that are left grow old.
Age shall not weary them,
Nor the years condemn.
At the going down of the sun,
And in the morning,
We will remember them.


From the poem by Laurence Binyon
The Words of Ataturk

These words attributed to Ataturk are inscribed on a memorial at ANZAC Cove (see picture below).

"Those heroes that shed their blood
and lost their lives;
You are now lying in the soil of a friendly country.
Therefore rest in peace.
There is no difference between the Johnnies
and the Mehmets to us where they lie side by side
here in this country of ours.
You, the mothers,
who sent their sons from far away countries,
wipe away your tears;
your sons are now lying in our bosom
and are in peace.
After having lost their lives on this land they have
become our sons as well."

Ataturk, 1934





For Australians, Anzac Cove is the best-known spot on Gallipoli. While the dawn landings were spread out over three-quarters of a kilometre of coastline, during the rest of 25 April 1915 the men of the ANZAC corps waded ashore at Anzac Cove. They were sent immediately inland into battle along Second Ridge at places which became famous in the story of Anzac – Lone Pine, Courtney’s Post, Quinn’s Post and the Nek. By the afternoon of 25 April, the beach was crowded with the wounded from the ferocious actions being fought out along the ridges. That day an estimated 2000 wounded passed through the cove, while others lay out on the battlefield awaiting evacuation.

Image

By 1 May 1915, more than 27 000 men of the ANZAC corps had landed at Gallipoli, and Anzac Cove was being transformed into the main port and administrative centre for the Anzac area. Piers were built to offload essential supplies and reinforcements, the best-known being Watson’s Pier, built by a party of the 2nd Australian Field Engineers under the supervision of Lieutenant Stanley Watson of the 1st Division Signal Company AIF. For the remainder of the campaign, huge rectangular piles of boxes were crammed into the narrow beach area and there was a constant fetching and carrying between the cove and the front line along the ridges. Some of this vital transport of supplies was undertaken by an Indian Army unit, the Indian Mule Cart Transport Company.


Anzac Cove, Gallipoli.

Up the slopes of the eroded valleys behind Anzac Cove, a virtual town of lean-to shelters, dugouts and more elaborate structures emerged to house the ANZAC staff. Australia’s official historian, Charles Bean, felt that this hillside settlement resembled ‘the Manly of New South Wales or the Victorian Sorrento, while the sleepy tick-tock of rifles from behind the hills suggested the assiduous practice of batsmen at their nets on some neighbouring cricket field’. Any sense of normality suggested here was belied by the fact that the Turks had the range of Anzac Cove and the area was shelled daily throughout the campaign, causing many casualties.


The Straits of the Dardanelles, November 1914 – April 1915

When World War I broke out in Europe in early August 1914, the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) initially remained neutral, unable to commit itself fully to either the Central Powers (Germany and Austro-Hungary) or the Allies (Britain, France and Russia). However, on 27 September 1914, Turkey closed the Straits of the Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazi) to British, French and Russian shipping and the situation gradually drifted towards war. On 29 October, German warships, ostensibly under Turkish control, bombarded Russian Black Sea ports. Turkey now found itself drawn inexorably into the German sphere of influence, and on 5 November 1914 Britain and France officially declared war on the Ottoman Empire.



In late 1914, as the war in northern Europe developed into the stalemate of the trenches, the British sought another, and supposedly more vulnerable, front on which to attack Germany. They decided on a naval attempt to penetrate the Dardanelles and push on to Istanbul (then known as Constantinople), the Turkish capital. The Ottoman Empire’s support of Germany in the face of a British fleet would then supposedly crumble, and wavering eastern European states, such as Bulgaria and Romania, would enter the war on the Allied side.

Turkey’s response to the British naval threat right from the beginning was to strengthen the fortifications of the Dardanelles. Minefields were laid across the Straits, mobile guns were positioned on both shores, and batteries in various fortresses were brought to a state of war readiness. On 3 November 1914, even before the official declaration of war, British warships bombarded the outer forts at Seddülbahir (‘The Barrier to the Sea’) at Cape Helles on Gallipoli and Kum Kale on the Asian shore. In late February 1915, the British ships returned to complete the destruction of the guns and Royal Marines were landed at both locations to carry out this task.



The inner defences of the Dardanelles did not prove so easy to overcome. It was necessary to sweep the mines aside before the great battleships could come up to engage the forts and push through the narrowest point of the Dardanelles – the Narrows. But all British efforts to deal with the mines with fishing trawlers equipped as minesweepers failed, as the shore batteries found them an easy target. Eventually, it was decided to mount a major attack on the forts protecting the minefields, using 16 British and French battleships and battle cruisers, among them the Royal Navy’s most modern Dreadnought battleship, HMS Queen Elizabeth.

This mighty fleet moved up the Dardanelles on the morning of 18 March 1915. From 12 kilometres down the Straits the warships shelled the forts (Çimenlik and Kilitbahir) at the Narrows, and other forts such as Fort Dardanos below Kephes Point. Initially, the bombardment seemed to be going well and the minesweepers were called up, but then a French battleship, the Bouvet, struck a mine (it may also have been hit by a shell from one of the Turkish batteries on the Gallipoli shore) and sank within minutes, taking almost her entire crew of 600 with her. Two more British battleships also eventually sank. Yet again, the minesweepers made little headway in the face of accurate fire from the Turkish gunners. That night the British decided not to press ahead with the naval attack and Turkey celebrated a victory over the world’s greatest sea power.


Australian Overseas War Memorials.

Belgium
Brunei Darrussalam
Crete
Egypt
France
Indonesia
Israel
Libya
Malaysia
Papua New Guinea
Thailand
Turkey
United Kingdom






Belgium

See the memorials in historical perspective:

* Western Front - Campaigns & Battles 1916-1918

See also:

* Cemeteries Overseas : Memorials to the Missing

1st Australian Tunnelling Company,
Hill 60, Ieper (Ypres)


Details


WW1

5th Division Memorial,
Polygon Wood, Zonnebeke


Details


WW1


Brunei Darrussalam

Memorial to Australian Operations in 1945,
Pantai Muara


Details


WW2


Crete

Historical background: Greek & Crete Campaigns 1941.
See also: Cemeteries Overseas; Memorials to the Missing.

Hellenic-Australian Memorial Park,
Rethymno


Details


WW2


Egypt

See also: Cemeteries Overseas; Memorials to the Missing.

9th Division Memorial,
El Alamein


Details


WW2


France

The memorials in historical perspective: Western Front - Campaigns & Battles 1916-1918
See also: Cemeteries Overseas; Memorials to the Missing.

1st Division Memorial,
Pozieres


Details


WW1

2nd Division Memorial,
Mont St Quentin


Details


WW1

3rd Division Memorial,
Sailly le Sec


Details


WW1

4th Division Memorial,
Bellenglise


Details


WW1

Australian Corps Memorial Park,
Le Hamel


Details


WW1

Australian Memorial Park,
Bullecourt


Details


WW1

Australian Memorial Park,
Fromelles


Details


WW1

Australian National Memorial,
Villers-Bretonneux


Details
CWGC details


WW1

Mouquet Farm Battle Exploit Plaque


Details


WW1

Windmill Site,
Pozieres


Details


WW1


Indonesia

Historical background: The Nurses of Bangka Island
See also: Cemeteries Overseas; Memorials to the Missing.

Nurses Memorial (Vyner Brooke Memorial),
Bangka Island


Details


WW2


Israel

See also: Cemeteries Overseas; Memorials to the Missing.

Australian Memorial,
Jerusalem


Details


WW1


Libya

See also: Cemeteries Overseas.

Tobruk Memorial


Details


WW2


Malaysia

Historical background: Sandakan.
See also: Cemeteries Overseas; Memorials to the Missing.

Parit Sulong Memorial


Details


WW2

Sandakan Memorial Park,
Sabah


Details


WW2

Surrender Point Memorial,
Labuan Island


Details


WW2


Papua New Guinea

The memorials in historical perspective: PNG Campaigns 1942-1945.
See also: Cemeteries Overseas; Memorials to the Missing.

AIF Memorial,
Lae



Details



WW2

Coastwatchers' Memorial,
Madang



Details


WW2

Isurava Memorial


Details


WW2

Kokoda Memorial


Details


WW2

Milne Bay Memorial


Details


WW2

Milne Bay - Turnbull Field Memorial


Details


WW2

Popondetta Memorial


Details


WW2

Rabaul Memorial


Details


WW2

Sogeri Memorial


Details


WW2

Surrender Memorial,
Cape Wom



Details



WW2

Wau Memorial


Details


WW2


Thailand

Historical background: Burma-Thailand Railway.
See also: Cemeteries Overseas.

Hellfire Pass Memorial Museum & Walking Trail


Details


WW2


Turkey

See also: Cemeteries Overseas; Memorials to the Missing.

Anzac Commemorative Site,
Gallipoli


Details
http://www.anzacsite.gov.au" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;


WW1


United Kingdom

See also: Cemeteries Overseas; Memorials to the Missing.

Australian War Memorial,
Hyde Park Corner, London


Details
http://www.awmlondon.gov.au" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;


WW1 & WW2

2nd AIF United Kingdom Force Memorial,
Wiltshire


Details


WW2



Australian Memorial Villers–Bretonneux,
Image


Australian war memorial
Image

Australian war memorial U.K
Image

Image

Australian war memorial BELGIUM
Image
Last edited by rath on Tue Jul 13, 2010 1:54 am, edited 1 time in total.
Image
rath
 
Posts: 4345
Joined: Thu Apr 09, 2009 11:54 am

Postby rath » Tue Jul 13, 2010 1:46 am

Second World War, 1939–45

over a million + Australians, both men and women, served in the Second World War.

Australia fought in campaigns against Germany and Italy in Europe, the Mediterranean and North Africa, as well as against Japan in south-east Asia and other parts of the Pacific, such as Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, Malaya.

Greece, Crete and Lebanon & Syria

Tunisia, Sicily and Italy.

Netherlands East Indies and Rabaul
The Australian mainland came under direct attack for the first time, as Japanese aircraft bombed towns in north-west Australia and Japanese midget submarines attacked Sydney Harbour.

The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) participated in operations against Italy after its entry into the war in June 1940. A few Australians flew in the Battle of Britain in August and September, but the Australian army was not engaged in combat until 1941, when the 6th, 7th, and 9th Divisions joined Allied operations in the Mediterranean and North Africa.


Following early successes against Italian forces, the Australians suffered defeat with the Allies at the hands of the Germans in Greece, Crete, and North Africa.

In June and July 1941 Australians participated in the successful invasion of Syria, a mandate of France and the Vichy government.
Up to 14,000 Australians held out against repeated German attacks in the Libyan port of Tobruk, where they were besieged between April and August 1941.

After being relieved at Tobruk, the 6th and 7th Divisions departed from the Mediterranean theatre for the war against Japan. The 9th Division remained to play an important role in the Allied victory at El Alamein in October 1942 before it also left for the Pacific.

Japan entered the war in December 1941 and swiftly achieved a series of victories, resulting in the occupation of most of south-east Asia and large areas of the Pacific by the end of March 1942. Singapore fell in February, with the loss of an entire Australian division. After the bombing of Darwin that same month, all RAN ships in the Mediterranean theatre, as well as the 6th and 7th Divisions, returned to defend Australia. In response to the heightened threat, the Australian government also expanded the army and air force and called for an overhaul of economic, domestic, and industrial policies to give the government special authority to mount a total war effort at home.

In March 1942, after the defeat of the Netherlands East Indies, Japan's southward advance began to lose strength, easing fears of an imminent invasion of Australia. Further relief came when the first AIF veterans of the Mediterranean campaigns began to come home, and when the United States assumed responsibility for the country's defence, providing reinforcements and equipment. The threat of invasion receded further as the Allies won a series of decisive battles: in the Coral Sea, at Midway, on Imita Ridge and the Kokoda Trail, and at Milne Bay and Buna.

Further Allied victories against the Japanese followed in 1943. Australian troops were mainly engaged in land battles in New Guinea, the defeat of the Japanese at Wau, and clearing Japanese soldiers from the Huon peninsula. This was Australia's largest and most complex offensive of the war and was not completed until April 1944. The Australian army also began a new series of campaigns in 1944 against isolated Japanese garrisons stretching from Borneo to Bougainville, involving more Australian troops than at any other time in the war. The first of these campaigns was fought on Bougainville and New Britain, and at Aitape, New Guinea. The final series of campaigns were fought in Borneo in 1945. How necessary these final campaigns were for Allied victory remains the subject of continuing debate. Australian troops were still fighting in Borneo when the war ended in August 1945.

While Australia's major effort from 1942 onwards was directed at defeating Japan, thousands of Australians continued to serve with the RAAF in Europe and the Middle East. Athough more Australian airmen fought against the Japanese, losses among those flying against Germany were far higher. Australians were particularly prominent in Bomber Command's offensive against occupied Europe. Some 3,500 Australians were killed in this campaign, making it the costliest of the war.

Over 30,000 Australian servicemen were taken prisoner in the Second World War and 39,000 gave their lives. Two-thirds of those taken prisoner were captured by the Japanese during their advance through south-east Asia in the first weeks of 1942. While those who became prisoners of the Germans had a strong chance of returning home at the end of the war, 36 per cent of prisoners of the Japanese died in captivity.

Nurses had gone overseas with the AIF in 1940. However, during the early years of the war women were generally unable to make a significant contribution to the war effort in any official capacity. Labour shortages forced the government to allow women to take a more active role in war work and, in February 1941, the RAAF received cabinet approval to establish the Women's Auxiliary Australian Air Force (WAAAF). At the same time, the navy also began employing female telegraphists, a breakthrough that eventually led to the establishment of the Women's Royal Australian Naval Service (WRANS) in 1942. The Australian Women's Army Service (AWAS) was established in October 1941, with the aim of releasing men from certain military duties in base units in Australia for assignment with fighting units overseas. Outside the armed services, the Women's Land Army (WLA) was established to encourage women to work in rural industries. Other women in urban areas took up employment in industries, such as munitions production.
http://www.ww2australia.gov.au/" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;



When the Australian Army came to France, the French people expected a great deal of you … We knew that you would fight a real fight, but we did not know that from the beginning you would astonish the whole continent … I shall go back tomorrow and say to my countrymen: ‘I have seen the Australians. I have looked into their faces. I know that these men … will fight alongside us again until the cause for which we are all fighting is safe for us and our children. - French Prime Minister, Georges Clemenceau, 1918



http://www.awmlondon.gov.au/" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

http://www.awm.gov.au/atwar/thismonth/index.asp" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
Image
rath
 
Posts: 4345
Joined: Thu Apr 09, 2009 11:54 am

Postby rath » Tue Jul 13, 2010 1:48 am

ANZAC Day, the 25th of April, is a very special day in Australian (and New Zealand) history. ANZAC stands for the Australia New Zealand Army Corps and the reason that it is so important is that on the 25th of April, 1915 Australia went into battle for the first time as an independent nation. We had only became a country in 1901 - before that we were a loose collection of colonies - and this was our "baptism of fire" on the shores of Gallipoli.

Our troops landed on beaches (now called ANZAC cove) on the Turkish peninsular at dawn in this fateful day. They suffered a terrible defeat but our men fought with great bravery and would have succeeded if not for one man - Mustafa Kemal, later known as Ataturk. Although it was a disaster it brought out some great characteristics of mateship and sacrifice for this little island continent of ours. We talk about the "Anzac Spirit" which was born that day and use the term as a mark of the greatest respect. We use this day to remember those who fought, and especially those who fell, in this war and all subsequent wars.

Drawing by Mike Chapell. From the website "ANZAC Memories" (below)
The Battle

In 1915 Australia along with its Allies (Britain, France and Russia, Italy, and Japan) was at war, fighting the Central Powers (Germany, the Ottoman Empire aka Turkey, and Austria-Hungary). When most people think of WW1 they think of fighting Germans in the trenches across France however Russia was also under attack from the Turks in the Caucasus. To aid their plight the Allies hatched a plan to distract Turkey by attacking the Gallipoli Peninsula, on Turkey's Aegean coast. Once the peninsula was taken the Allies would be able to take control of a strait of water called the Dardanelles and lay siege to Turkey's main city, Istanbul (then Constantinople).

Australian and New Zealand troops then training in Egypt were tasked to participate in the attack. On April 25, 1915, the Australian troops landed on the Gallipoli Peninsula on what they had been told was a nice friendly flat beach. Instead, they found that they had been landed at the incorrect position and faced steep cliffs and constant barrages of enemy fire and shelling. Around 20,000 soldiers landed on the beach over the next two days to face a well organised, well armed, large Turkish force determined to defend their country - and led by Mustafa Kemal, who later became Ataturk, the leader of modern Turkey. It is said that Ataturk just happened to be holidaying in the area and took control of the Turkish forces right at the last moment. Thousands of Australian men died in the hours that followed the landing at the beach that would eventually come to be known as Anzac Cove.

What followed was basically a disaster. The Aussies hung in for several months however could make little headway against the Turks. They had nowhere to go and no real hope however they dug in tenaciously and absorbed whatever the Turks threw at them. Many thousands of Aussie and Kiwi soldiers died, not only from the battle but from disease brought about by the poor living conditions. However from this disaster was born the image of the Aussie Digger, a brave and laconic battler, betrayed by the mother country but facing impossible odds with humour, courage and mateship.

Eventually the ANZAC troops were withdrawn from the peninsula having accomplished nothing. Those that survived went on to fight on other fronts but it was at Gallipoli that the legend was born.


For the Fallen

They shall not grow old,
As we that are left grow old.
Age shall not weary them,
Nor the years condemn.
At the going down of the sun,
And in the morning,
We will remember them.


From the poem by Laurence Binyon
The Words of Ataturk

These words attributed to Ataturk are inscribed on a memorial at ANZAC Cove (see picture below).

"Those heroes that shed their blood
and lost their lives;
You are now lying in the soil of a friendly country.
Therefore rest in peace.
There is no difference between the Johnnies
and the Mehmets to us where they lie side by side
here in this country of ours.
You, the mothers,
who sent their sons from far away countries,
wipe away your tears;
your sons are now lying in our bosom
and are in peace.
After having lost their lives on this land they have
become our sons as well."


Ataturk, 1934


For Australians, Anzac Cove is the best-known spot on Gallipoli. While the dawn landings were spread out over three-quarters of a kilometre of coastline, during the rest of 25 April 1915 the men of the ANZAC corps waded ashore at Anzac Cove. They were sent immediately inland into battle along Second Ridge at places which became famous in the story of Anzac – Lone Pine, Courtney’s Post, Quinn’s Post and the Nek. By the afternoon of 25 April, the beach was crowded with the wounded from the ferocious actions being fought out along the ridges. That day an estimated 2000 wounded passed through the cove, while others lay out on the battlefield awaiting evacuation.

Image

By 1 May 1915, more than 27 000 men of the ANZAC corps had landed at Gallipoli, and Anzac Cove was being transformed into the main port and administrative centre for the Anzac area. Piers were built to offload essential supplies and reinforcements, the best-known being Watson’s Pier, built by a party of the 2nd Australian Field Engineers under the supervision of Lieutenant Stanley Watson of the 1st Division Signal Company AIF. For the remainder of the campaign, huge rectangular piles of boxes were crammed into the narrow beach area and there was a constant fetching and carrying between the cove and the front line along the ridges. Some of this vital transport of supplies was undertaken by an Indian Army unit, the Indian Mule Cart Transport Company.


Anzac Cove, Gallipoli.
Up the slopes of the eroded valleys behind Anzac Cove, a virtual town of lean-to shelters, dugouts and more elaborate structures emerged to house the ANZAC staff. Australia’s official historian, Charles Bean, felt that this hillside settlement resembled ‘the Manly of New South Wales or the Victorian Sorrento, while the sleepy tick-tock of rifles from behind the hills suggested the assiduous practice of batsmen at their nets on some neighbouring cricket field’. Any sense of normality suggested here was belied by the fact that the Turks had the range of Anzac Cove and the area was shelled daily throughout the campaign, causing many casualties.


The Straits of the Dardanelles, November 1914 – April 1915

When World War I broke out in Europe in early August 1914, the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) initially remained neutral, unable to commit itself fully to either the Central Powers (Germany and Austro-Hungary) or the Allies (Britain, France and Russia). However, on 27 September 1914, Turkey closed the Straits of the Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazi) to British, French and Russian shipping and the situation gradually drifted towards war. On 29 October, German warships, ostensibly under Turkish control, bombarded Russian Black Sea ports. Turkey now found itself drawn inexorably into the German sphere of influence, and on 5 November 1914 Britain and France officially declared war on the Ottoman Empire.



In late 1914, as the war in northern Europe developed into the stalemate of the trenches, the British sought another, and supposedly more vulnerable, front on which to attack Germany. They decided on a naval attempt to penetrate the Dardanelles and push on to Istanbul (then known as Constantinople), the Turkish capital. The Ottoman Empire’s support of Germany in the face of a British fleet would then supposedly crumble, and wavering eastern European states, such as Bulgaria and Romania, would enter the war on the Allied side.

Turkey’s response to the British naval threat right from the beginning was to strengthen the fortifications of the Dardanelles. Minefields were laid across the Straits, mobile guns were positioned on both shores, and batteries in various fortresses were brought to a state of war readiness. On 3 November 1914, even before the official declaration of war, British warships bombarded the outer forts at Seddülbahir (‘The Barrier to the Sea’) at Cape Helles on Gallipoli and Kum Kale on the Asian shore. In late February 1915, the British ships returned to complete the destruction of the guns and Royal Marines were landed at both locations to carry out this task.



The inner defences of the Dardanelles did not prove so easy to overcome. It was necessary to sweep the mines aside before the great battleships could come up to engage the forts and push through the narrowest point of the Dardanelles – the Narrows. But all British efforts to deal with the mines with fishing trawlers equipped as minesweepers failed, as the shore batteries found them an easy target. Eventually, it was decided to mount a major attack on the forts protecting the minefields, using 16 British and French battleships and battle cruisers, among them the Royal Navy’s most modern Dreadnought battleship, HMS Queen Elizabeth.

This mighty fleet moved up the Dardanelles on the morning of 18 March 1915. From 12 kilometres down the Straits the warships shelled the forts (Çimenlik and Kilitbahir) at the Narrows, and other forts such as Fort Dardanos below Kephes Point. Initially, the bombardment seemed to be going well and the minesweepers were called up, but then a French battleship, the Bouvet, struck a mine (it may also have been hit by a shell from one of the Turkish batteries on the Gallipoli shore) and sank within minutes, taking almost her entire crew of 600 with her. Two more British battleships also eventually sank. Yet again, the minesweepers made little headway in the face of accurate fire from the Turkish gunners. That night the British decided not to press ahead with the naval attack and Turkey celebrated a victory over the world’s greatest sea power.


Australian Overseas War Memorials.
Belgium
Brunei Darrussalam
Crete
Egypt
France
Indonesia
Israel
Libya
Malaysia
Papua New Guinea
Thailand
Turkey
United Kingdom



Belgium

See the memorials in historical perspective:

* Western Front - Campaigns & Battles 1916-1918

See also:

* Cemeteries Overseas : Memorials to the Missing

1st Australian Tunnelling Company,
Hill 60, Ieper (Ypres)


Details


WW1

5th Division Memorial,
Polygon Wood, Zonnebeke


Details


WW1


Brunei Darrussalam

Memorial to Australian Operations in 1945,
Pantai Muara


Details


WW2


Crete

Historical background: Greek & Crete Campaigns 1941.
See also: Cemeteries Overseas; Memorials to the Missing.

Hellenic-Australian Memorial Park,
Rethymno


Details


WW2


Egypt

See also: Cemeteries Overseas; Memorials to the Missing.

9th Division Memorial,
El Alamein


Details


WW2


France

The memorials in historical perspective: Western Front - Campaigns & Battles 1916-1918
See also: Cemeteries Overseas; Memorials to the Missing.

1st Division Memorial,
Pozieres


Details


WW1

2nd Division Memorial,
Mont St Quentin


Details


WW1

3rd Division Memorial,
Sailly le Sec


Details


WW1

4th Division Memorial,
Bellenglise


Details


WW1

Australian Corps Memorial Park,
Le Hamel


Details


WW1

Australian Memorial Park,
Bullecourt


Details


WW1

Australian Memorial Park,
Fromelles


Details


WW1

Australian National Memorial,
Villers-Bretonneux


Details
CWGC details


WW1

Mouquet Farm Battle Exploit Plaque


Details


WW1

Windmill Site,
Pozieres


Details


WW1


Indonesia

Historical background: The Nurses of Bangka Island
See also: Cemeteries Overseas; Memorials to the Missing.

Nurses Memorial (Vyner Brooke Memorial),
Bangka Island


Details


WW2


Israel

See also: Cemeteries Overseas; Memorials to the Missing.

Australian Memorial,
Jerusalem


Details


WW1


Libya

See also: Cemeteries Overseas.

Tobruk Memorial


Details


WW2


Malaysia

Historical background: Sandakan.
See also: Cemeteries Overseas; Memorials to the Missing.

Parit Sulong Memorial


Details


WW2

Sandakan Memorial Park,
Sabah


Details


WW2

Surrender Point Memorial,
Labuan Island


Details


WW2


Papua New Guinea

The memorials in historical perspective: PNG Campaigns 1942-1945.
See also: Cemeteries Overseas; Memorials to the Missing.

AIF Memorial,
Lae



Details



WW2

Coastwatchers' Memorial,
Madang



Details


WW2

Isurava Memorial


Details


WW2

Kokoda Memorial


Details


WW2

Milne Bay Memorial


Details


WW2

Milne Bay - Turnbull Field Memorial


Details


WW2

Popondetta Memorial


Details


WW2

Rabaul Memorial


Details


WW2

Sogeri Memorial


Details


WW2

Surrender Memorial,
Cape Wom



Details



WW2

Wau Memorial


Details


WW2


Thailand

Historical background: Burma-Thailand Railway.
See also: Cemeteries Overseas.

Hellfire Pass Memorial Museum & Walking Trail


Details


WW2


Turkey

See also: Cemeteries Overseas; Memorials to the Missing.

Anzac Commemorative Site,
Gallipoli


Details
http://www.anzacsite.gov.au" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;


WW1


United Kingdom

See also: Cemeteries Overseas; Memorials to the Missing.

Australian War Memorial,
Hyde Park Corner, London


Details
http://www.awmlondon.gov.au" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;


WW1 & WW2

2nd AIF United Kingdom Force Memorial,
Wiltshire


Details


WW2



Australian Memorial Villers–Bretonneux,
Image


Australian war memorial
Image

Australian war memorial U.K
Image

Australian war memorial BELGIUM
Image



Image

& Australia Built what is now ... the middle east, ( turning tribes into nations )

Australia Founded nations such as, ...... Iraq, ...... Palestine .... Israel ...... Jordan ......... ect ect.

The Battle for Beersheba 31st October 1917.

Charge of Light Brigade Re-enact Key Victory in Palestine
http://community.theblackvault.com/phpB ... 168#p21168" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;


Fromelles search finds 250 bodies
http://community.theblackvault.com/phpB ... f=6&t=2025" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;


WW2 HOSPITAL SHIP CENTAUR FOUND http://community.theblackvault.com/phpB ... f=6&t=2666" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;


World War II - Fuzzy Wuzzy Angels officially recognised
http://community.theblackvault.com/phpB ... 408#p23408" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
Australia was a founding member of the united nations ...... & had Australia take'n the seat as a permannent member of the security council, and not passed it over.

& If Australia had held onto the ottoman empire in europe & Africa after world war one, the USA would not have been involved in world war two as history would have been very different indeed.

http://community.theblackvault.com/phpB ... =28&t=1156" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

First World War, 1914-18 will get to ww2 later.

First World War, 1914-18

Australia entered ww1 from day one in 1914 & before the usa had entered the war in 1918.

Australia had pushed Germany out of, France, Belgium, Italy, Africa & the south pacific.
the Middle East, Afghanistan and the Persian Gulf, Palestine


1 October 1918 - Australian Light Horsemen take Damascus
The Light Horse advances into Damascus, the Syrian capital, at the end of the long and victorious advance that ended the First World War in the Middle East



30 October 1918 - Armistice with Turkey
Armistice signed with Turkey, ending Turkish involvement in the First World War. Australian troops had taken the most prominent part in the war against the Ottoman empire, especially on Gallipoli and in Sinai-Palestine.

31 October 1917 - Beersheba, Palestine
At Beersheba the 4th Light Horse Brigade's bold charge against Turkish positions at Beersheba, seized a critical wells that enabled British empire forces to break the Ottoman line near Gaza and advance into Palestine.


See -Australian & German Battle At
Villers–Bretonneux.
Pozières.
Fromelles.


The Hindenburg Line- the last and strongest of the German army's defence - consisted of three well-defended trench systems, established in 1917. Throughout September 1918, Australian forces had helped the British army to secure positions from which an attack on the Hindenburg Line could be launched. Planning began for a major attack at the end of the month. It was hoped that this attack would finally break the power of the German army.




The Hindenburg Line: Breaking the Hindenburg Line
On 18 September 1918, Australia's preliminary attack was launched when Lieutenant General Sir John Monash's troops reached the first part of the Hindenburg Line. At 5.20 am, Monash's troops, supported by huge artillery barrages, attacked the heavily fortified German defences and machine-gun posts. Using only eight tanks (as well as dummy tanks to distract the Germans), they broke through German positions and took 4,300 prisoners. Although there were 1,000 dead or wounded, this cost was fairly slim compared to the losses of the German forces.
The Second Attack

On 29 September, the line was finally broken. Australian troops spearheaded this battle, given the task of breaking defences in the centre. They attacked a strongly defended sector at Bellicourt with tanks, artillery, and aircraft working in concert. Advances were made, but it was a struggle between the two forces. The fighting lasted four days and resulted in heavy losses.

Gunner J.R. Armitage wrote:

As we went over the ridge we found ourselves in the midst of the most wonderful and impressive battle field scene imaginable. It was a scene never to be forgotten with infantry, tanks, guns, everything in action in a sort of inferno of smoke and shell bursts.

Eventually, the Allies broke through the third and final stage of the Hindenburg Line, and the Germans were forced to fall back. Private Albert Golding wrote after the battle that he and some fellow diggers slept that night in an abandoned German trench and ate a hearty breakfast from hastily abandoned German supplies!


In this attack, troops captured the entrance to the St Quentin canal tunnel. Inside was a kitchen where German bodies were found – one of them in a cooking cauldron. There were wild claims that the enemy was boiling down the dead, and this was exploited by the allies’ propaganda system. Anti-German sentiment was so strong that it was widely believed. An investigation soon proved that, during the fighting, a shell had exploded in an improvised kitchen, killing the unfortunate Germans and throwing one into a pot.

An attack on 5 October The Australian last brigade fought and took Montbrehain village, and with that, the Hindenburg Line was completely broken.

By this time, most Australian troops had been fighting for six months without a break, 11 out of 60 battalions were disbanded because there were so few men left in them, and 27,000 men had been killed or wounded since the Battle of Amiens. The troops were worn and war weary.

Image

http://www.ww1westernfront.gov.au/battlefields.html" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;



Image
Australian VC Corner Cemetery - Fromelles



When the Australian Army came to France, the French people expected a great deal of you … We knew that you would fight a real fight, but we did not know that from the beginning you would astonish the whole continent … I shall go back tomorrow and say to my countrymen: ‘I have seen the Australians. I have looked into their faces. I know that these men … will fight alongside us again until the cause for which we are all fighting is safe for us and our children. - French Prime Minister, Georges Clemenceau, 1918



http://www.awmlondon.gov.au/" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;

Image
Image
rath
 
Posts: 4345
Joined: Thu Apr 09, 2009 11:54 am

Postby rath » Tue Jul 13, 2010 1:49 am

Great Escape: The Untold Story


The Great Escape – the escape from a Nazi prison camp of 76 airmen in 1944 – was made famous by the triumphant 1963 Hollywood movie starring Steve McQueen but Steve Westh, the writer and director of ABC TV’s The Great Escape: The Reckoning, a docu-drama on Thursday (October 29th) at 8.30pm on ABC1, unearthed a plethora of facts that didn’t sit well with Hollywood producers – the most obvious one being that NO Americans were among the Great Escapers. And no one escaped by motorcycle either.

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z5I3nGpQBA4" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
Image
rath
 
Posts: 4345
Joined: Thu Apr 09, 2009 11:54 am

Postby rath » Tue Jul 13, 2010 1:51 am

The Last Post


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S-Xrlf3taEo" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gRqMMaCZfHI" onclick="window.open(this.href);return false;
Image
rath
 
Posts: 4345
Joined: Thu Apr 09, 2009 11:54 am

Postby Guest » Tue Jul 13, 2010 2:29 pm

Just proves the Aussies were gullible enough to let the Brits fight to the last ANZAC !
Guest
 

Next

Return to General Discussion Topics

  • View new posts
  • View unanswered posts
  • Who is online
  • In total there are 3 users online :: 0 registered, 0 hidden and 3 guests (based on users active over the past 10 minutes)
  • Most users ever online was 292 on Mon Apr 23, 2012 3:19 pm
  • Users browsing this forum: No registered users and 3 guests