Homo floresiensis was the last cousin of the Human race. Archaeological remains were found on the Indonesian island of Flores. H. floresiensis was known to exists as recently as 12,000 years ago but there are several stories of them existing all the way into the late 19th century, the Ebu Gogo and the Orang Pendek. Neanderthals (H. neanderthalensis) became extinct about 24,000 years ago.
The Ebu Gogo had language, made tools and used water rafts. It is believed that they were wiped out by a volcanic eruption.
But like many discoveries of human cousins there is controversy. Professor Teuku Jacob, chief paleontologist of the Indonesian Gadjah Mada University claims this is not a new species. In early December 2004, Professor Jacob removed most of the remains from Soejono's institution, Jakarta's National Research Centre of Archaeology, for his own research without the permission of the Centre's directors. Some expressed fears that, like the Dead Sea Scrolls, important scientific evidence would be sequestered by a small group of scientists who neither allowed access by other scientists nor published their own research. Jacob eventually returned the remains with portions severely damaged and missing two leg bones on February 23, 2005 to the worldwide consternation of his peers.
It is my belief that there is a much larger story here and one which spreads way beyond this discovery and even beyond paleontology. Has there been a systematic cover up of the birth of the Human race? Could Humans represent a species that is not wholly terrestrial? Were the earlier species of Hominids replaced by H. Sapiens by natural forces or through tampering? Is there evidence buried in fossil records? If we analyzed all the known fossil material that has been found around the world would we find that the "missing link" is much bigger than previously reported and isn't missing at all but non-existent?
I know that most arguments along these lines get steered towards religious motivations but my contention is that it has nothing to do with religion at all. There is another possibility. Human intelligence far exceeds any of his cousins. His ability to reason, capacity for language, ability to create tools, build civilizations and control his environment cannot be compared to any other creature ever to exist on earth. How do we explain the large separation of intelligence between Humans and all of his cousins?
The entire topic of Human evolution has been, for more than a century, constrained to discussions of "evolution vs. creation", but what if both are wrong? Could non-terrestrials have created the Human race in order to conquer the earth? A species from one planet would likely find it difficult to live on another planet with a different environment. So, in order to make any new planet viable for their species they would necessarily need to create hybrids, a mixture of their own genetic code and native code. The hybrids would theoretically posses the traits of both species and would be able to live on the new planet.
H. floresiensis represents one species in a long line of supposed Human "cousins" who were slowly pushed further and further into the corners of the earth until they had so few numbers that they were no longer viable as a species. Add any natural disaster to the mix and the remaining members are lost forever.