CodeBlack wrote:Well, I would never say that the outback was not rough. When you've got 1,000 miles in every direction of what you see above, that is pretty harsh. The convicts were in prisons, not roaming the countryside, until Mad Max. Plus lots of other people have migrated to Kangaroo land since those days. Australia is still not completely plundered. To be fair to the UK, it is much older and has had a lot of peoples come and go.
The sad truth is that humans do a poor job of maintaining their home. The oldest parts of the world inhabited by man are the most messed up. See Africa and certain parts of Asia, India. The UK still has some nice areas. Ironically, the people who seem the best at maintaining their home are the Germans and the Japanese. They aren't so good at maintaining yours though.
I hear what your saying but the facts are .......
people have lived in Australia for some 60.000-120.000 years before the english got here.
The convicts were in prisons, not roaming the countryside,
yes The convicts were in prisons, & not roaming the countryside................However.
The prison they were at ... port-Arthur is in the island state of Tasmania.http://www.portarthur.org.au/
* Numbers of Convicts (1788 - 1868)
* More than 160,000 convicts were transported to Australia between 1788 and 1868.
Transportation had been used since the beginning of the eighteenth century to rid the English of their prisoners. Usually, convicts were taken to the British colony of America,
but the American War of Independence (1775–1783) changed all that forever. The Americans no longer wanted to be a part of the British Empire, and were willing to fight for the right to govern themselves.
* What kind of criminal came to Australia?
* The First Fleet carried 736 criminals. They were all thieves. Over a hundred had used violence in carrying out their crimes (there were 31 muggers and 71 highway robbers on board), but none was transported for a violent crime, like murder. These first convicts were not naturally dangerous or violent. There was no Social Security in England at this time, and unemployment was even more of a problem than it is today. They were mostly hungry people who could not support themselves without stealing.
* Where did they come from and how old were they?
Most of the First Fleet convicts were citizens of London. On later fleets many Irish people were transported.The average age of a convict was around twenty-seven years.
The oldest male was Joseph Owen, who was in his early sixties; the youngest was a nine-year-old chimney sweep called John Hudson, transported for seven years for stealing some clothes and a pistol. The youngest female was Elizabeth Hayward, a clog-maker who stole a linen dress and a silk bonnet. She was thirteen.
The oldest woman was Dorothy Handland, who hanged herself from a gum tree at Sydney Cove in 1789 at the age of eighty-four.
* A large number of English soldiers were transported for crimes such as mutiny, desertion and insubordination.
* Transportation was an integral part of the English and Irish systems of punishment. It was a way to deal with increased poverty and the severity of the sentences for larceny. Simple larceny, or robbery, could mean transportation for up to seven years. Compound larceny - stealing goods worth more than a shilling (about $50 in today's money) - meant death by hanging.
* Good behaviour and 'Ticket of leave' licences
Good behaviour meant that convicts rarely served their full term and could qualify for a Ticket of Leave, Certificate of Freedom, Conditional Pardon or even an Absolute Pardon. This allowed convicts to earn their own living and live independently. However, for the period of their sentence they were still subject to surveillance and the ticket could be withdrawn for misbehaviour. This sanction was found to work better in securing good behaviour then the threat of flogging.
The ticket of leave licences were developed first to save money, but they then became a central part of the convict system which provided the model for later systems of probation for prisoners.http://www.cultureandrecreation.gov.au/articles/convicts/
To sum up ......
* The average age of a convict was around twenty-seven years.
The youngest was a nine-year-old chimney sweep called John Hudson, transported for seven years for stealing some clothes and a pistol. The youngest female was Elizabeth Hayward, a clog-maker who stole a linen dress and a silk bonnet. She was thirteen.
* larceny, or robbery, could mean transportation for up to seven years, after that you were free.
* Compound larceny - stealing goods worth more than a shilling (about $50 in today's money) - meant death by hanging.....after which, you were dead.
So one way or the other most people were out & free within 7 years.
Free to live where they please.