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Stuxnet to Attack Iran's Nuclear Program?
October 2, 2010
8:00 am
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sandra
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Was Stuxnet Built to Attack Iran's Nuclear Program?

By Robert McMillan, IDG News

A highly sophisticated computer worm that has spread through Iran, Indonesia and India was built to destroy operations at one target: possibly Iran's Bushehr nuclear reactor.

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Microsoft Confirms It Missed Stuxnet Print Spooler 'Zero-Day'
The Top 10 Stories in IT This WeekThat's the emerging consensus of security experts who have examined the Stuxnet worm. In recent weeks, they've broken the cryptographic code behind the software and taken a look at how the worm operates in test environments. Researchers studying the worm all agree that Stuxnet was built by a very sophisticated and capable attacker -- possibly a nation state -- and it was designed to destroy something big.

Though it was first developed more than a year ago, Stuxnet was discovered in July 2010, when a Belarus-based security company discovered the worm on computers belonging to an Iranian client. Since then it has been the subject of ongoing study by security researchers who say they've never seen anything like it before. Now, after months of private speculation, some of the researchers who know Stuxnet best say that it may have been built to sabotage Iran's nukes.

Last week Ralph Langner, a well-respected expert on industrial systems security, published an analysis of the worm, which targets Siemens software systems, and suggested that it may have been used to sabotage Iran's Bushehr nuclear reactor. A Siemens expert, Langner simulated a Siemens industrial network and then analyzed the worm's attack.

Experts had first thought that Stuxnet was written to steal industrial secrets -- factory formulas that could be used to build counterfeit products. But Langner found something quite different. The worm actually looks for very specific Siemens settings -- a kind of fingerprint that tells it that it has been installed on a very specific Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) device -- and then it injects its own code into that system.

Because of the complexity of the attack, the target "must be of extremely high value to the attacker," Langner wrote in his analysis.

Langner is set to present his findings at a closed-door security conference in Maryland this week, which will also feature a technical discussion from Siemens engineers. Langner said he wasn't yet ready to speak to a reporter at length ("the fact of the matter is this stuff is so bizarre that I have to make up my mind how to explain this to the public," he said via e-mail) but others who have examined his data say that it shows that whoever wrote Stuxnet clearly had a specific target in mind. "It's looking for specific things in specific places in these PLC devices. And that would really mean that it's designed to look for a specific plant," said Dale Peterson, CEO of Digital Bond.

This specific target may well have been Iran's Bushehr reactor, now under construction, Langner said in a blog posting. Bushehr reportedly experienced delays last year, several months after Stuxnet is thought to have been created, and according to screen shots of the plant posted by UPI, it uses the Windows-based Siemens PLC software targeted by Stuxnet.

Peterson believes that Bushehr was possibly the target. "If I had to guess what it was, yes that's a logical target," he said. "But that's just speculation."

Langner thinks that it's possible that Bushehr may have been infected through the Russian contractor that is now building the facility, JSC AtomStroyExport. Recently AtomStroyExport had its Web site hacked, and some of its Web pages are still blocked by security vendors because they are known to host malware. This is not an auspicious sign for a company contracted with handling nuclear secrets.

Tofino Security Chief Technology Officer Eric Byres is an industrial systems security expert who has tracked Stuxnet since it was discovered. Initially he thought it was designed for espionage, but after reading Langner's analysis, he's changed his mind. "I guessed wrong, I really did," he said. "After looking at the code that Ralph hauled out of this thing, he's right on."

One of the things that Langner discovered is that when Stuxnet finally identifies its target, it makes changes to a piece of Siemens code called Organizational Block 35. This Siemens component monitors critical factory operations -- things that need a response within 100 milliseconds. By messing with Operational Block 35, Stuxnet could easily cause a refinery's centrifuge to malfunction, but it could be used to hit other targets too, Byres said. "The only thing I can say is that it is something designed to go bang," he said.

Whoever created Stuxnet developed four previously unknown zero-day attacks and a peer-to-peer communications system, compromised digital certificates belonging to Realtek Semiconductor and JMicron Technology, and displayed extensive knowledge of industrial systems. This is not something that your run-of-the-mill hacker can pull off. Many security researchers think that it would take the resources of a nation state to accomplish.

Last year, rumors began surfacing that Israel might be contemplating a cyber attack on Iran's nuclear facilities.

Bushehr is a plausible target, but there could easily be other facilities -- refineries, chemical plants or factories that could also make valuable targets, said Scott Borg, CEO of the U.S. Cyber Consequences Unit, a security advisory group. "It's not obvious that it has to be the nuclear program," he said. "Iran has other control systems that could be targeted."

Iranian government representatives did not return messages seeking comment for this story, but sources within the country say that Iran has been hit hard by the worm. When it was first discovered, 60 percent of the infected Stuxnet computers were located in Iran, according to Symantec.

http://www.pcworld.com/businesscenter/a ... ogram.html

“Living backwards!” Alice repeated in great
astonishment. “I never heard of such a thing!”
“—but there’s one great advantage in it, that one’s
memory works both ways.”
— Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking-Glass

October 2, 2010
3:43 pm
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Aquatank
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from what I heard on NPR stuxnet actually hit China very hard.

October 2, 2010
11:24 pm
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sandra
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"Aquatank" wrote: from what I heard on NPR stuxnet actually hit China very hard.

Yep it looks like it has.

Cyber weapon Stuxnet hits China
Warwick Ashford email
Friday 01 October 2010 12:10
Stuxnet, the computer worm considered to be the world's first cyber weapon, has hit millions of computers in China.

The attacks have infected more than six million individual accounts and nearly 1,000 corporate accounts around the country, the official Xinhua news agency reported.

But the China Information Technology Security Evaluation Centre downplayed the malware threat, saying Stuxnet had not caused any severe damage.

A representative said computer users should be aware of Stuxnet, but there was no need to worry, according to the China Post.

Stuxnet's origin and purpose is not fully understood, but experts have raised concerns that the worm appears to be designed to attack systems running critical infrastructure.

This means that in theory attackers could break into computers that control critical systems like nuclear power stations, water supply systems and electrical power grids.

Security researchers have reported finding Stuxnet on Siemens control systems in India, Indonesia, Pakistan and particularly those in nuclear power stations in Iran.

The malware exploits four now patched zero-day vulnerabilities in software from Microsoft and used two valid security certificates to avoid detection.

Security experts say the Stuxnet worm, which appeared more than a year ago, is one of the most sophisticated pieces of malware seen to date.

Researchers have described Stuxnet as a one-of-a-kind, sophisticated malware backed by a well-funded, highly skilled team, leading to speculation it is backed by a country.
http://www.computerweekly.com/Articles/ ... -China.htm

“Living backwards!” Alice repeated in great
astonishment. “I never heard of such a thing!”
“—but there’s one great advantage in it, that one’s
memory works both ways.”
— Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking-Glass

October 3, 2010
6:16 am
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Nesaie
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I want to know which country designed and implemented this cyberterrorist act. Nevermind, I'm sure that it was created in a country that starts with an "I". But, if I said that country, I'd get called names. 😉 So, instead I'll describe this country. They were built on blowing up innocent people, they murder for fun, they illegally spy on Americans in the US and they steal property.

Such a society would be dominated by an elite, unrestrained by traditional values. Soon it will be possible to assert almost continuous surveillance over every citizen... - Zbigniew Brezhinsky

October 3, 2010
4:06 pm
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Aquarian
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"Nesaie" wrote: I want to know which country designed and implemented this cyberterrorist act. Nevermind, I'm sure that it was created in a country that starts with an "I". But, if I said that country, I'd get called names. 😉 So, instead I'll describe this country. They were built on blowing up innocent people, they murder for fun, they illegally spy on Americans in the US and they steal property.

Or fired from whatever job you have now!

Laugh

The Few assume to be the deputies, but they are often only the despoilers of the Many.
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel

October 3, 2010
4:47 pm
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Aquatank
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I know we are quick to point fingers at nations for stuxnet, and its far more sophisticated than average hackers, BUT I would not rule out an NGO being behind it. Worry enough people with a certain mind set and this kind of attack could be carried out by a largely unknown fringe group, much like Al Qaeda was before the USS Cole and 9-11.

October 4, 2010
5:58 am
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sandra
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Its one big conspiracy how it all got started and how it is being dealt with.

Get ready for my long winded quote: sorry sometimes I can't stand just posting partial quotes on articles.

Stuxnet worm: Private security experts want US to tell them more

Stuxnet worm: Private security experts want US to tell them more
Private sector security experts say the government’s public reports on the Stuxnet worm – the world’s first publicly-known cyber superweapon – often seem to be old news or incomplete.

An Iranian security man stands next to journalists outside the reactor building at the Russian-built Bushehr nuclear power plant in southern Iran on August 21, 2010. The Stuxnet computer worm has infected 30,000 computers in Iran but has failed to "cause serious damage," Iranian officials were quoted as saying on September 26, 2010.

Newscom
.Enlarge
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

By Mark Clayton, Staff writer / October 3, 2010

America’s government security experts are among the best in the world. But their private sector counterparts are mystified why government’s public findings on the Stuxnet worm – the world’s first publicly-known cyber superweapon – so often have seemed muted, old news, or incomplete.

.Tucked away on a government website, the Industrial Control System-Cyber Emergency Response Team (ICS-CERT) – part of the Department of Homeland Security – posts alerts and bulletins with government analysis of Stuxnet, dutifully logging its findings since it emerged publicly in July.

Yet those government alerts have mostly been echoes of findings already made public by anti-virus companies and private researchers – often lagging by several days and providing less detailed findings, industrial control system security experts say.

It looks like government is either inept at releasing detailed technical information to help protect the country or – for other reasons political or strategic – has decided to pull its punches on helping defuse Stuxnet, security experts, former government officials and Stuxnet experts told the monitor.

For instance, they say, the US government so far has refused to provide details on Stuxnet that might help some 40-50 US-based industrial control systems possibly infected by this new generation of cyber-war software. The government’s failure, they say, leaves US corporations infected and open to attack in the future.

“Name me one new or helpful piece of information that ICS-CERT provided to the community on Stuxnet? Or any other helpful contribution on the biggest control system security event to date,” writes Dale Peterson, CEO of Digital Bond, a control systems security firm, in his Sept. 20 blog. “It seems to me to have been a delayed clipping service.”

'Those bulletins they put out were missing key data'
“They had the expertise, the relationship with vendors, the equipment in their labs and the ability to analyze Stuxnet,” Mr. Peterson said in an interview. “But those bulletins they put out were missing key data or late. Getting this information out quickly was their sole mission, and they failed.”

Sean McGurk, director of DHS’s Control System Security Program, who oversees ICS-CERT, disputes that view, saying the team has been very focused on putting out timely public alerts – leaving out details if they did not serve the function of protecting critical US infrastructure systems.

“We took a broad all-hazards approach to the [Stuxnet] malcode,” he says in an interview. “We immediately began to analyze it and produce information to get into the hands of the community so they could begin taking protective measures.”

At the company level, ICS-CERT is focused on forensic incident response – like dealing with Stuxnet – and vulnerability assessment. Computer engineers in Washington, along with experts at the Department of Energy’s Idaho National Laboratory, test control system software and equipment. Results are distributed to software vendors and users of the system software.

“We were able to reverse engineer the [Stuxnet] code and monitor how it works,” McGurk says. “There have been individuals speculating on attribution and intent…. Our main focus has been on understanding the malware and putting mitigation in place – how to prevent the spread and how to protect the physical infrastructure.”

On Sept. 21, German researcher Ralph Langner dropped a bombshell at a cyber security conference in Maryland detailing how Stuxnet “fingerprints” its target, making it the first-known targeted cyber missile. It is designed to home in on and “destroy something” in the real world, Mr. Langner says. Some of his findings, posted on his website Sept. 13, were echoed days later in an ICS-CERT alert.

This past week the big anti-virus software company Symantec again eclipsed government researchers by unveiling a 49-page blue print of Stuxnet, which some experts speculate was aimed at wrecking Iranian nuclear facilities, but which has spread far beyond Iran.

Symantec’s analysis – much of it released long ago in blog posts this summer – details not only how Stuxnet operates, but also key steps to defuse it.

That could be important since Symantec notes in its new report that about 60 percent of the 100,000 Stuxnet-infected computers worldwide were in Iran. Yet just under 1 percent of those infections were in the US – roughly 900 computers systems. And within that smaller group, about 5 percent of the infections (40-50 computers) were on Siemens industrial control systems.

Siemans uncertain how many clients infected
That’s a lot more than Siemens admits to. A spokesman told the Monitor just 15 of its industrial controls systems clients worldwide had reported Stuxnet infection. The spokesman acknowledged, however, the company is not certain all its clients would have reported an infection if they had one.

That worries some experts who wish there was a stronger government push to fan out among potentially affected industries to explain Stuxnet and the threat variants it might pose.

“I don’t think the chemical industry has their eyes on this, which is why I’m writing about this,” says Patrick Coyle, a retired chemical engineer who writes a blog called Chemical Facility Security News. “Government hasn’t reached these guys.”

Others like Joel Langill, an industrial control systems security expert who works in the oil and gas industry says there’s been a distinct lack of information flowing from government.

“It was very quiet in July, and about the only place to get public information on Stuxnet was from Symantec,” says “I don’t think ICS-CERT reports have done justice to the magnitude of what happened. Their reports have contained a lot of detail about the Stuxnet worm and prevention, but haven’t done much about what to do if you had it. If this was a massive cyber attack, they didn’t do very well.”

On Sept. 29, ICS-CERT released a four-page “advisory,” the most recent in a series of similarly brief tracts on how Stuxnet has operated since July.

But until the Sept. 15 advisory – which appeared two days after Mr. Langner’s revelations on his website – none of these federal missives provided details that would be needed by US-based industrial systems to detect and remove Stuxnet from infected programmable logic controllers or PLCs, several experts say.

One part of Stuxnet sneaks into an industrial control system. But another part drops its main bomb on PLCs – vital computers that directly control robots on the factory floor. It was an issue focused on and unpacked in detail by Symantec in early August. But it took the government until its Sept. 15 advisory to address the PLC issue.

“They did okay addressing Stuxnet, but I would like to know what I can do to prevent a similar attack coming in the future. That’s where they come up short,” says Langill.

One who applauds the federal government for its efforts on Stuxnet is Mark Weatherford, chief of security for the North American Electric Reliability Corporation. His organization, which is charged with keep the grid up and running, says his group has been working closely with government to get the word about Stuxnet security concerns directly to about 2,000 registered energy generators nationwide.

“Hopefully Stuxnet will die a peaceful death,” he says. “But we’re going to stay on top of it until we feel comfortable that the threat is no longer there.”

Lack of details leads to rumors and speculation
Still, the consistent shortfall in Stuxnet details from government has led to rumors and speculation. One theory circulating is that the Defense Department feared somehow exposing nuclear systems by detailing Stuxnet fixes.

Another more obvious theory is that Israel may be behind the cyber attack on Iran – and US officials don’t want to provide Iran with a road map for fixing computers inside their nuclear facilities. Iranian authorities have admitted that Stuxnet infiltrated their nuclear power plant.

“The real question is: Did the US government know the target,” says one cyber security expert in the private sector who asked not to be named because he works with the government sector and fears losing its business. “Did the US government know Stuxnet’s target and say, ‘No, no, no – we don’t want this information [about how to defang Stuxnet] out there. It’s highly plausible that people knew Iran was the target and didn’t want all the details about how to fix Stuxnet to get out right away.”

But Scott Borg, who directs the US Cyber Consequences Unit, an independent cyber research center, says because malware attacks are so hard to source, he would not be too quick to assume the US is withholding information to help Israel, or even that Iran was the target, despite the apparent predominance of Stuxnet infections reported in Iran.

The most plausible explanation is that private sector researchers are winning the race on getting information out because they are better at it.

“Most experts [on control systems] are in the private sector and sometimes they are just faster,” Mr. Borg says. “Everyone in government has to follow proper procedure. In the private sector you go for the right answer, cut every corner to get their first. It’s easier to do this work in very informal settings.”

Others, however, told the Monitor there is every sign that US government researchers at the Idaho National Laboratory knew a lot more about Stuxnet and how to defeat it – far more than has yet been released by the government. Government researchers, they say, knew well before most information about it was released publicly by private companies.

“There’s this decision making process,” he said. “Do we hurt trusted relationships, other governments, vendors, our own military? This is why you get this disparity between what is released from government and what’s released privately.”

Still, such decisions can leave even professionals “incredibly frustrated because they ended up looking like goofballs,” a former senior government official, who asked not to be named because he still works with government, says of US researchers on Stuxnet. “They had done good work. They knew a lot – and had gotten to a good place with [Stuxnet] before anybody else. But in public they looked like they weren’t on top of their game. These guys did an incredible level of work that never got out in enough technical detail.”

Meanwhile, back in Germany, Mr. Langner posted another blog item – this one an eight-point critique of what he writes is critical, but missing information not raised in the most recent Sept. 29 ICS-CERT advisory on Stuxnet.

“Why explain in great length all the funny files that Stuxnet installs and not saying how to simply pull the plug by deleting one file?” he writes.

Joe Weiss, a managing partner at Applied Control Solutions, which sponsored the conference where Langner spoke, is disappointed that government officials at the conference provided few details about Stuxnet.

'Why are they holding back?'
“Neither the Department of Energy or DHS has been giving us any real help on this issue,” says Mr. Weiss. “If they’ve got the information, why the heck wasn’t that information being sent to our infrastructure owners? Why are they holding back?

He and others say there is more than a little irony in federal officials touting last week’s Cyber Storm III, the government’s third big war game, as great preparation for a cyber attack with the backdrop of Stuxnet, the first known cyber superweapon to make its appearance in the public realm.

But to charges of offering late and incomplete information on this major new threat, DHS’s Mr. McGurk says his agency has no apologies for not listing all the gory details, which he said is intentional when it occurs.

“I wouldn’t say information was intentionally withheld because it wasn’t complete,” he says referring to the ICS-CERT alerts on Stuxnet since July. Sometimes it’s best to go to work directly with the chemical industry or petroleum industry, he notes.

That may entail sharing some detailed information the government knows but wants to keep to itself and those who most need to know it – information, he says, that is “not something we are going to put publicly on a public website.”

“Living backwards!” Alice repeated in great
astonishment. “I never heard of such a thing!”
“—but there’s one great advantage in it, that one’s
memory works both ways.”
— Lewis Carroll, Through the Looking-Glass

October 4, 2010
6:05 am
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mrmonsoon
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"Nesaie" wrote: I want to know which country designed and implemented this cyberterrorist act. Nevermind, I'm sure that it was created in a country that starts with an "I". But, if I said that country, I'd get called names. 😉 So, instead I'll describe this country. They were built on blowing up innocent people, they murder for fun, they illegally spy on Americans in the US and they steal property.

Well, aren't you a bundle of hate and ignorance.

1) It was "RUSSIANS" who were working on the reactor.
2) Russians have all left in mass after 4 people were arrested for the crime.
3) If they were Israeli, how did they get access to the reactor????
4) If the Russians were innocent, why did they all leave?????
5) If it were Israeli's, Iran would be spouting all kinds of crap and threats, but nothing.
( go on, threaten russia, I dare you, Iran)

October 4, 2010
4:23 pm
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Nesaie
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"mrmonsoon" wrote:

Well, aren't you a bundle of hate and ignorance.

NICE! You've been here all about five minutes and already you're name calling. You'll fit in here nicely.

I love you and I forgive you. It's my new mantra, and for the moment it's working for me.

"mrmonsoon" wrote:
1) It was "RUSSIANS" who were working on the reactor.
2) Russians have all left in mass after 4 people were arrested for the crime.
3) If they were Israeli, how did they get access to the reactor????
4) If the Russians were innocent, why did they all leave?????
5) If it were Israeli's, Iran would be spouting all kinds of crap and threats, but nothing.
( go on, threaten russia, I dare you, Iran)

Did I say Israel? I can think of several countries that start with an I. India, Iran, Iraq, Indonesia...well, that is just off the top of my head. Now, why on Earth would you assume I was talking about Israel? I mean, after all, India doesn't like Pakistan and by proxy should also hate Iran...right? Since so many Indians work in the m$ tech field today, maybe I was talking about India? But, wouldn't Indians name a file Ganish or Vishnu?

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/30/world ... .html?_r=1

That use of the word “Myrtus” — which can be read as an allusion to Esther — to name a file inside the code is one of several murky clues that have emerged as computer experts try to trace the origin and purpose of the rogue Stuxnet program, which seeks out a specific kind of command module for industrial equipment.

Or maybe, the only country that starts with an I that is full of terrorist organizations and thiefs and genocidal maniacs happens to be Israel. Indonesia, India Iraq and Iran do NOT promote genocide, Israel does. Israel steals property. The Declaration of Independence was going to be "Life Liberty and the Pursuit of Property". Property later was changed to happiness.

But, I suppose you're going to ejumakate me right? It could be fun. BTW, are you a Khazar? Or are you a Semite?

Such a society would be dominated by an elite, unrestrained by traditional values. Soon it will be possible to assert almost continuous surveillance over every citizen... - Zbigniew Brezhinsky

October 4, 2010
4:43 pm
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mrmonsoon
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"Nesaie" wrote: [quote="mrmonsoon"]

Well, aren't you a bundle of hate and ignorance.

NICE! You've been here all about five minutes and already you're name calling. You'll fit in here nicely.

I love you and I forgive you. It's my new mantra, and for the moment it's working for me.

"mrmonsoon" wrote:
1) It was "RUSSIANS" who were working on the reactor.
2) Russians have all left in mass after 4 people were arrested for the crime.
3) If they were Israeli, how did they get access to the reactor????
4) If the Russians were innocent, why did they all leave?????
5) If it were Israeli's, Iran would be spouting all kinds of crap and threats, but nothing.
( go on, threaten russia, I dare you, Iran)

Did I say Israel? I can think of several countries that start with an I. India, Iran, Iraq, Indonesia...well, that is just off the top of my head. Now, why on Earth would you assume I was talking about Israel? I mean, after all, India doesn't like Pakistan and by proxy should also hate Iran...right? Since so many Indians work in the m$ tech field today, maybe I was talking about India? But, wouldn't Indians name a file Ganish or Vishnu?

http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/30/world ... .html?_r=1

That use of the word “Myrtus” — which can be read as an allusion to Esther — to name a file inside the code is one of several murky clues that have emerged as computer experts try to trace the origin and purpose of the rogue Stuxnet program, which seeks out a specific kind of command module for industrial equipment.

Or maybe, the only country that starts with an I that is full of terrorist organizations and thiefs and genocidal maniacs happens to be Israel. Indonesia, India Iraq and Iran do NOT promote genocide, Israel does. Israel steals property. The Declaration of Independence was going to be "Life Liberty and the Pursuit of Property". Property later was changed to happiness.

But, I suppose you're going to ejumakate me right? It could be fun. BTW, are you a Khazar? Or are you a Semite?

It is plainly clear what you are and what you think.

Your ignorance is sad, but not uncommon.

Everyone who read your reply knows exactly what you mean and what kind of person you are.

I did notice you made a point of not answering any questions/points "on topic" .

This is a clear sign you know what I am saying is correct and so you avoid it.
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